Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a complication after the intravascular administration of a contrast medium injection. Previous studies have investigated statins as therapy for CIN due to its positive results in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin pretreatment in preventing CIN in patients with acute coronary syndromes still remain controversial. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the beneficial impact of rosuvastatin in the prevention of CI-AKI in acute coronary syndrome patients.
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched, for RCTs, updated on January 2018. The method was to evaluate rosuvastatin prior to angiography for the prevention of CI-AKI in patients undergoing coronary angiography, of which the main outcome was the incidence of CIN.
A total of five RCTs were included in this analysis. Patients treated with rosuvastatin prior to invasive angiography had a significantly lower incidence of CI-AKI than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40–0.71, P<0.0001). Moreover, the subgroup analysis also showed that the benefit of rosuvastatin for patients with chronic kidney disease (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26–0.92, P=0.03) and diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.38–0.83, P=0.004) which was consistent in compared with the respective control groups.
The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the preoperative rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduces the risk of renal insufficiency of CIN in at-risk patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. Additional studies are needed to identify at-risk patients, provide optimum dose peri-procedural treatment, and reduce the incidence of CIN.