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      Meta-analysis of rosuvastatin efficacy in prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury

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          Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a complication after the intravascular administration of a contrast medium injection. Previous studies have investigated statins as therapy for CIN due to its positive results in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin pretreatment in preventing CIN in patients with acute coronary syndromes still remain controversial. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the beneficial impact of rosuvastatin in the prevention of CI-AKI in acute coronary syndrome patients.


          PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched, for RCTs, updated on January 2018. The method was to evaluate rosuvastatin prior to angiography for the prevention of CI-AKI in patients undergoing coronary angiography, of which the main outcome was the incidence of CIN.


          A total of five RCTs were included in this analysis. Patients treated with rosuvastatin prior to invasive angiography had a significantly lower incidence of CI-AKI than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.40–0.71, P<0.0001). Moreover, the subgroup analysis also showed that the benefit of rosuvastatin for patients with chronic kidney disease (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26–0.92, P=0.03) and diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.38–0.83, P=0.004) which was consistent in compared with the respective control groups.


          The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the preoperative rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduces the risk of renal insufficiency of CIN in at-risk patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. Additional studies are needed to identify at-risk patients, provide optimum dose peri-procedural treatment, and reduce the incidence of CIN.

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          Most cited references 26

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          A simple risk score for prediction of contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention: development and initial validation.

          We sought to develop a simple risk score of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although several risk factors for CIN have been identified, the cumulative risk rendered by their combination is unknown. A total of 8,357 patients were randomly assigned to a development and a validation dataset. The baseline clinical and procedural characteristics of the 5,571 patients in the development dataset were considered as candidate univariate predictors of CIN (increase >or=25% and/or >or=0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 h after PCI vs. baseline). Multivariate logistic regression was then used to identify independent predictors of CIN with a p value 75 years, anemia, and volume of contrast) were assigned a weighted integer; the sum of the integers was a total risk score for each patient. The overall occurrence of CIN in the development set was 13.1% (range 7.5% to 57.3% for a low [ or=16] risk score, respectively); the rate of CIN increased exponentially with increasing risk score (Cochran Armitage chi-square, p < 0.0001). In the 2,786 patients of the validation dataset, the model demonstrated good discriminative power (c statistic = 0.67); the increasing risk score was again strongly associated with CIN (range 8.4% to 55.9% for a low and high risk score, respectively). The risk of CIN after PCI can be simply assessed using readily available information. This risk score can be used for both clinical and investigational purposes.
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            Incidence and prognostic importance of acute renal failure after percutaneous coronary intervention.

            In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the modern era, the incidence and prognostic implications of acute renal failure (ARF) are unknown. With a retrospective analysis of the Mayo Clinic PCI registry, we determined the incidence of, risk factors for, and prognostic implications of ARF (defined as an increase in serum creatinine [Cr] >0.5 mg/dL from baseline) after PCI. Of 7586 patients, 254 (3.3%) experienced ARF. Among patients with baseline Cr 2.0, all had a significant risk of ARF. In multivariate analysis, ARF was associated with baseline serum Cr, acute myocardial infarction, shock, and volume of contrast medium administered. Twenty-two percent of patients with ARF died during the index hospitalization compared with only 1.4% of patients without ARF (P 2.0 are at high risk for ARF. ARF was highly correlated with death during the index hospitalization and after dismissal.
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              Acute renal failure after coronary intervention: incidence, risk factors, and relationship to mortality.

              This study set out to define the incidence, predictors, and mortality related to acute renal failure (ARF) and acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARFD) after coronary intervention. Derivation-validation set methods were used in 1,826 consecutive patients undergoing coronary intervention with evaluation of baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl), diabetic status, contrast exposure, postprocedure creatinine, ARF, ARFD, in-hospital mortality, and long-term survival (derivation set). Multiple logistic regression was used to derive the prior probability of ARFD in a second set of 1,869 consecutive patients (validation set). The incidence of ARF and ARFD was 144.6/1,000 and 7.7/1,000 cases respectively. The cutoff dose of contrast below which there was no ARFD was 100 mL. No patient with a CrCl > 47 mL/min developed ARFD. These thresholds were confirmed in the validation set. Multivariate analysis found CrCl [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 0.89, P <0.00001], diabetes (OR = 5.47, 95% CI 1.40 to 21.32, P = 0.01), and contrast dose (OR = 1.008, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.013, P = 0.01) to be independent predictors of ARFD. Patients in the validation set who underwent dialysis had a predicted prior probability of ARFD of between 0.07 and 0.73. The in-hospital mortality for those who developed ARFD was 35.7% and the 2-year survival was 18.8%. The occurrence of ARFD after coronary intervention is rare (<1%) but is associated with high in-hospital mortality and poor long-term survival. Individual patient risk can be estimated from calculated CrCl, diabetic status, and expected contrast dose prior to a proposed coronary intervention.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                31 October 2018
                : 12
                : 3685-3690
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Radiotherapy, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China, 1005573353@ 123456qq.com
                [3 ]Department of Nephrology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China, linping1027@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Li Bian, Department of Radiotherapy, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, No 218 Ziqiang Street, Changchun, 130041, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 155 2685 2158, Email 1005573353@ 123456qq.com
                Ping Lin, Department of Nephrology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, No 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun, 130021, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 159 4306 4431, Email linping1027@ 123456163.com
                © 2018 Zhang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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