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      Isolated peritoneal carcinomatosis in prostate cancer: from a successful hormonal management to a review of the literature


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          Metastases from prostate cancer involve mainly the bone compartment. However, visceral metastases are found in up to 49% of metastatic patients, occurring mainly in late stages of the disease, and are correlated with poor outcome. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is rarely described in literature, particularly when not associated with other distant metastatic lesions. We present the management of a patient with prostate cancer progressing on androgen deprivation therapy with description of omental involvement on 68Ga PSMA-PET. There was no ascite or other distant lesion, reflecting thus a specific tropism of the cancer in this patient who had no history of prostate surgery. Abiraterone acetate resulted in a long-lasting complete response. We also present a review focusing on this entity.

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          We report an atypical presentation of metastases from prostate cancer in a patient previously treated with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy. Resurgence occurred as peritoneal carcinomatosis that was diagnosed at an early stage with 68Ga PSMA-PET. Abiraterone acetate resulted in long-lasting complete response in this patient. This case highlights the role of modern imaging in detecting early stages of complicating metastases, and to our knowledge is the first time a successful long-term response with abiraterone acetate has been observed in this entity.

          Most cited references41

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          Cancer Statistics, 2017.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2017, 1,688,780 new cancer cases and 600,920 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. For all sites combined, the cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than in women, while the cancer death rate is 40% higher. However, sex disparities vary by cancer type. For example, thyroid cancer incidence rates are 3-fold higher in women than in men (21 vs 7 per 100,000 population), despite equivalent death rates (0.5 per 100,000 population), largely reflecting sex differences in the "epidemic of diagnosis." Over the past decade of available data, the overall cancer incidence rate (2004-2013) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2005-2014) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. From 1991 to 2014, the overall cancer death rate dropped 25%, translating to approximately 2,143,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the cancer death rate was 15% higher in blacks than in whites in 2014, increasing access to care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may expedite the narrowing racial gap; from 2010 to 2015, the proportion of blacks who were uninsured halved, from 21% to 11%, as it did for Hispanics (31% to 16%). Gains in coverage for traditionally underserved Americans will facilitate the broader application of existing cancer control knowledge across every segment of the population. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:7-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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            Metastatic patterns of prostate cancer: an autopsy study of 1,589 patients.

            The prognosis of prostate cancer is mainly determined by the presence or absence of metastases. Nevertheless, the metastatic pathways in prostate cancer are not entirely understood. Among 19,316 routine autopsies performed from 1967 to 1995 on men older than 40 years of age, the reports from those 1,589 (8.2%) with prostate cancer were analyzed. Hematogeneous metastases were present in 35% of 1,589 patients with prostate cancer, with most frequent involvement being bone (90%), lung (46%), liver (25%), pleura (21%), and adrenals (13%). Several lines of evidence suggested the existence of a backward metastatic pathway through veins from the prostate to the spine in addition to classical hematogeneous tumor spread via the vena cava. First, there was an inverse relationship between spine and lung metastases, suggesting that metastasis to the spine is independent of lung metastasis. Second, the maximum frequency of spine involvement occurred in smaller tumors (4 to 6 cm) as compared with the maximum spread to lung (6 to 8 cm) and liver (>8 cm), suggesting that spine metastases precede lung and liver metastases in many prostate cancers. Third, there was a gradual decrease in spine involvement from the lumbar to the cervical level (97% v 38%), which is consistent with a subsequent upward metastatic spread along spinal veins after initial lumbar metastasis. The results of this study show that bone, lung, and liver are the most frequent sites of distant prostate cancer metastases. Besides the cava-type of metastasis through lung passage, there are strong arguments for the existence and clinical significance of a backward venous spread to the spine, which is likely to occur early in the metastatic process.
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              Visceral disease in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

              Metastatic involvement of the viscera in men with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has been poorly characterised to date. In 359 CRPC patients treated between June 2003 and December 2011, the frequency of radiologically detected visceral metastases before death was 32%. Of the 92 patients with computed tomography performed within 3 mo of death, 49% had visceral metastases. Visceral metastases most commonly involved the liver (20%) and lung (13%). Median survival from diagnosis of visceral disease was 7.1 mo (95% confidence interval, 5.9-8.3). Survival was affected by the degree of bone involvement at detection of visceral disease, varying from 6.1 mo in men with more than six bone metastases to 18.2 mo in men with no bone metastases (p=0.001). Heterogeneity was noted in clinical phenotypes and prostate-specific antigen trends at development of visceral metastases. Visceral metastases are now more commonly detected in men with CRPC, likely due to the introduction of novel survival-prolonging treatments.

                Author and article information

                Future Sci OA
                Future Sci OA
                Future Science OA
                Future Science Ltd (London, UK )
                30 April 2021
                July 2021
                30 April 2021
                : 7
                : 6
                : FSO707
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Hôpital de Jolimont, Haine Saint-Paul,7100, Belgium
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Hôpital de Jolimont, Haine Saint-Paul, 7100, Belgium
                [3 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Hôpital de Jolimont, Haine Saint-Paul, 7100, Belgium
                Author notes
                [* ]Author for correspondence: Tel.: +32 64 234 166; emmanuel.seront@ 123456jolimont.be
                Author information
                © 2021 Emmanuel Seront

                This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

                : 22 January 2021
                : 24 February 2021
                : 30 April 2021
                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Case Report

                case report,hormone therapy,peritoneal carcinomatosis,prostate cancer,prostate-specific membrane antigen and pet


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