This review presents the background to the development of the anaesthetists' non-technical
skills (ANTS) taxonomy and behaviour rating tool, which is the first non-technical
skills framework specifically designed for anaesthetists. We share the experience
of the anaesthetists who designed ANTS in relation to applying it in a department
of anaesthesia, using it in a simulation centre, and the process of introducing it
to the profession on a national basis. We also consider how ANTS is being applied
in relation to training and research in other countries and finally, we discuss emerging
issues in relation to the introduction of a non-technical skills approach in anaesthesia.