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      Familial adenomatous polyposis in pediatrics: natural history, emerging surveillance and management protocols, chemopreventive strategies, and areas of ongoing debate

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      Familial Cancer

      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Most cited references 73

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          Cancer statistics, 2008.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Incidence and death rates are age-standardized to the 2000 US standard million population. A total of 1,437,180 new cancer cases and 565,650 deaths from cancer are projected to occur in the United States in 2008. Notable trends in cancer incidence and mortality include stabilization of incidence rates for all cancer sites combined in men from 1995 through 2004 and in women from 1999 through 2004 and a continued decrease in the cancer death rate since 1990 in men and since 1991 in women. Overall cancer death rates in 2004 compared with 1990 in men and 1991 in women decreased by 18.4% and 10.5%, respectively, resulting in the avoidance of over a half million deaths from cancer during this time interval. This report also examines cancer incidence, mortality, and survival by site, sex, race/ethnicity, education, geographic area, and calendar year, as well as the proportionate contribution of selected sites to the overall trends. Although much progress has been made in reducing mortality rates, stabilizing incidence rates, and improving survival, cancer still accounts for more deaths than heart disease in persons under age 85 years. Further progress can be accelerated by supporting new discoveries and by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.
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            Cyclooxygenase regulates angiogenesis induced by colon cancer cells.

            To explore the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) in endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis, we have used two in vitro model systems involving coculture of endothelial cells with colon carcinoma cells. COX-2-overexpressing cells produce prostaglandins, proangiogenic factors, and stimulate both endothelial migration and tube formation, while control cells have little activity. The effect is inhibited by antibodies to combinations of angiogenic factors, by NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor), and by aspirin. NS-398 does not inhibit production of angiogenic factors or angiogenesis induced by COX-2-negative cells. Treatment of endothelial cells with aspirin or a COX-1 antisense oligonucleotide inhibits COX-1 activity/expression and suppresses tube formation. Cyclooxygenase regulates colon carcinoma-induced angiogenesis by two mechanisms: COX-2 can modulate production of angiogenic factors by colon cancer cells, while COX-1 regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells.
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              Alterations in cellular adhesion and apoptosis in epithelial cells overexpressing prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2.

               M Tsujii,  R Dubois (1995)
              Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2, also referred to as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), is a key enzyme in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and other eicosanoids. Rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells were permanently transfected with a COX-2 expression vector oriented in the sense (RIE-S) or antisense (RIE-AS) direction. The RIE-S cells expressed elevated COX-2 protein levels and demonstrated increased adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. E-cadherin was undetectable in RIE-S cells, but was elevated in parental RIE (RIE-P) and RIE-AS cells. RIE-S cells were resistant to butyrate-induced apoptosis, had elevated BCL2 protein expression, and reduced transforming growth factor beta 2 receptor levels. The phenotypic changes involving both increased adhesion to ECM and inhibition of apoptosis were reversed by sulindac sulfide (a COX inhibitor). These studies demonstrate that overexpression of COX-2 leads to phenotypic changes in intestinal epithelial cells that could enhance their tumorigenic potential.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Familial Cancer
                Familial Cancer
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1389-9600
                1573-7292
                July 2016
                April 7 2016
                July 2016
                : 15
                : 3
                : 477-485
                Article
                10.1007/s10689-016-9905-5
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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