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      Association between pelvic obliquity and scoliosis, hip displacement and asymmetric hip abduction in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional registry study

      BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

      BioMed Central

      Cerebral palsy, Pelvic obliquity, Scoliosis, Hip displacement, Hip abduction

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pelvic obliquity (PO) is common in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). The prevalence of PO in a population of children with CP and its associations with scoliosis, hip displacement and asymmetric range of hip abduction were analysed.

          Methods

          Over a 5-year period all pelvic radiographs from the Swedish surveillance programme for CP and the recorded data for scoliosis and hip abduction in children from southern Sweden at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels II–V were analysed. PO and hip displacement calculated as migration percentage (MP) were measured on supine pelvic radiographs and compared with presence of scoliosis and side difference in hip abduction. Statistical analyses comprised chi-squared and binominal testing.

          Results

          In total, 337 children were analysed, of whom 79 had a PO of ≥5°. The proportion of children with PO increased from 16% in GMFCS level II to 34% in level V. Scoliosis combined with PO was reported in 38 children, of whom 34 (89%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 80–99%) had the convexity opposite to the high side of the PO. Asymmetric abduction with PO was reported in 45 children, of whom 40 (89%, CI 79–99%) had reduced abduction on the high side of the PO. Asymmetric MP of ≥5% with PO was seen in 62 children, of whom 50 had higher MP on the high side of the PO (81%, CI 71–90%). Children in GMFCS levels II–IV more often had isolated infra-pelvic association with PO (47% versus 19% in GMFCS V, P = 0.025), while combined supra- and infrapelvic association was more common in GMFCS level V (65% versus 30% in GMFCS II–IV, P = 0.004). Isolated infrapelvic or no association was seen in 74% of children ≤10 years of age while 76% of children ≥11 years old had suprapelvic or combined supra- and infrapelvic association with PO ( P < 0.001).

          Conclusions

          There was a strong association between the high side of the PO and the side of scoliosis, highest MP, and lowest range of abduction when PO was measured in supine position. PO was more often associated with infrapelvic factors. PO was seen in young children indicating the need for early awareness of this complication.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Content validity of the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System.

          The aim of this study was to validate the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) for children and youth with cerebral palsy using group consensus methods. Eighteen physical therapists participated in a nominal group technique to evaluate the draft version of a 12- to 18-year age band. Subsequently, 30 health professionals from seven countries participated in a Delphi survey to evaluate the revised 12- to 18-year and 6- to 12-year age bands. Consensus was defined as agreement with a question by at least 80% of participants. After round 3 of the Delphi survey, consensus was achieved for the clarity and accuracy of the descriptions for each level and the distinctions between levels for both the 12- to 18-year and 6- to 12-year age bands. Participants also agreed that the distinction between capability and performance and the concept that environmental and personal factors influence methods of mobility were useful for classification of gross motor function. The results provide evidence of content validity of the GMFCS-E&R. The GMFCS-E&R has utility for communication, clinical decision making, databases, registries, and clinical research.
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            Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

            Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18%) developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP) >40% and further 19 (9%) MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40%) was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip surveillance programme for children with CP with radiographic examinations based on the child's age and GMFCS level.
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              Prevention of dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy: 20-year results of a population-based prevention programme.

              In 1994 a cerebral palsy (CP) register and healthcare programme was established in southern Sweden with the primary aim of preventing dislocation of the hip in these children. The results from the first ten years were published in 2005 and showed a decrease in the incidence of dislocation of the hip, from 8% in a historical control group of 103 children born between 1990 and 1991 to 0.5% in a group of 258 children born between 1992 and 1997. These two cohorts have now been re-evaluated and an additional group of 431 children born between 1998 and 2007 has been added. By 1 January 2014, nine children in the control group, two in the first study group and none in the second study group had developed a dislocated hip (p < 0.001). The two children in the first study group who developed a dislocated hip were too unwell to undergo preventive surgery. Every child with a dislocated hip reported severe pain, at least periodically, and four underwent salvage surgery. Of the 689 children in the study groups, 91 (13%) underwent preventive surgery. A population-based hip surveillance programme enables the early identification and preventive treatment, which can result in a significantly lower incidence of dislocation of the hip in children with CP. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                gunnar.hagglund@med.lu.se
                Journal
                BMC Musculoskelet Disord
                BMC Musculoskelet Disord
                BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2474
                14 July 2020
                14 July 2020
                2020
                : 21
                Affiliations
                Department of Clinical Sciences, Orthopedics, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
                Article
                3484
                10.1186/s12891-020-03484-y
                7362488
                32664926
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100008594, Linnéa och Josef Carlssons Stiftelse;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010814, Stiftelsen för Bistånd åt Rörelsehindrade i Skåne;
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Orthopedics

                hip abduction, hip displacement, scoliosis, pelvic obliquity, cerebral palsy

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