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      Novel environment friendly TLC-densitometric method for the determination of anti-coronavirus drugs “Remdesivir and Favipiravir”: Green assessment with application to pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma

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          Abstract

          A great demand for discovering new therapeutic solutions has been considered all over the world for managing the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic. Remdesivir (REM) and Favipiravir (FAV) are introduced as promising newly developed antiviral agents against the corona virus as evidenced by the clinical findings. Hence, the optimization of an analytical method for their simultaneous determination acquires potential importance in quality control labs and further confirmatory investigations. Herein, a green, sensitive, and selective densitometric method has been proposed and validated for determination of REM and FAV in pharmaceutical formulations and spiked human plasma on normal phase TLC plates. A solvent mixture of ethyl acetate–methanol-ammonia (8:2:0.2 by volume) has been chosen as developing mobile phase system. Well resolved spots have been detected at 235 nm with retardation factors (R f) of 0.18 and 0.98 for REM and FAV, respectively. A validation study has been carried out in the light of ICH guidelines. Remdesivir and FAV have shown excellent sensitivities with quantitation limits down to 0.12 and 0.07 μg/band, respectively. The developed method has been successfully applied to tablet formulations and spiked plasma with excellent recoveries ranged from 97.21 to 101.31%. The greenness of the method has been evaluated using the standards of greenness profile and Eco-Scale. It has passed the four greenness profile quadrants and achieved 80 score in Eco-Scale.

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          Most cited references34

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          World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)

          An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a relative of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is caused by a betacoronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 90,870 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 3,000 deaths worldwide. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19.
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            Challenges in ensuring global access to COVID-19 vaccines: production, affordability, allocation, and deployment

            The COVID-19 pandemic is unlikely to end until there is global roll-out of vaccines that protect against severe disease and preferably drive herd immunity. Regulators in numerous countries have authorised or approved COVID-19 vaccines for human use, with more expected to be licensed in 2021. Yet having licensed vaccines is not enough to achieve global control of COVID-19: they also need to be produced at scale, priced affordably, allocated globally so that they are available where needed, and widely deployed in local communities. In this Health Policy paper, we review potential challenges to success in each of these dimensions and discuss policy implications. To guide our review, we developed a dashboard to highlight key characteristics of 26 leading vaccine candidates, including efficacy levels, dosing regimens, storage requirements, prices, production capacities in 2021, and stocks reserved for low-income and middle-income countries. We use a traffic-light system to signal the potential contributions of each candidate to achieving global vaccine immunity, highlighting important trade-offs that policy makers need to consider when developing and implementing vaccination programmes. Although specific datapoints are subject to change as the pandemic response progresses, the dashboard will continue to provide a useful lens through which to analyse the key issues affecting the use of COVID-19 vaccines. We also present original data from a 32-country survey (n=26 758) on potential acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, conducted from October to December, 2020. Vaccine acceptance was highest in Vietnam (98%), India (91%), China (91%), Denmark (87%), and South Korea (87%), and lowest in Serbia (38%), Croatia (41%), France (44%), Lebanon (44%), and Paraguay (51%).
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              Remdesivir is a direct-acting antiviral that inhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with high potency

              Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed to control this current pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Replication of SARS-CoV-2 depends on the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the likely target of the investigational nucleotide analogue remdesivir (RDV). RDV shows broad-spectrum antiviral activity against RNA viruses, and previous studies with RdRps from Ebola virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have revealed that delayed chain termination is RDV's plausible mechanism of action. Here, we expressed and purified active SARS-CoV-2 RdRp composed of the nonstructural proteins nsp8 and nsp12. Enzyme kinetics indicated that this RdRp efficiently incorporates the active triphosphate form of RDV (RDV-TP) into RNA. Incorporation of RDV-TP at position i caused termination of RNA synthesis at position i+3. We obtained almost identical results with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 RdRps. A unique property of RDV-TP is its high selectivity over incorporation of its natural nucleotide counterpart ATP. In this regard, the triphosphate forms of 2′-C-methylated compounds, including sofosbuvir, approved for the management of hepatitis C virus infection, and the broad-acting antivirals favipiravir and ribavirin, exhibited significant deficits. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the target specificity of RDV, as RDV-TP was less efficiently incorporated by the distantly related Lassa virus RdRp, and termination of RNA synthesis was not observed. These results collectively provide a unifying, refined mechanism of RDV-mediated RNA synthesis inhibition in coronaviruses and define this nucleotide analogue as a direct-acting antiviral.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microchem J
                Microchem J
                Microchemical Journal
                Elsevier B.V.
                0026-265X
                1095-9149
                18 December 2021
                March 2022
                18 December 2021
                : 174
                : 107101
                Affiliations
                [a ]Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia 61519, Egypt
                [b ]Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University, Beni-Suef 62521, Egypt
                [c ]Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author.
                Article
                S0026-265X(21)01187-5 107101
                10.1016/j.microc.2021.107101
                8683213
                34955554
                86a4dc5a-ec78-4ac0-aaf1-3701b5ba72fe
                © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 2 November 2021
                : 10 December 2021
                : 14 December 2021
                Categories
                Article

                remdesivir,favipiravir,covid-19,tlc-densitometry,human plasma

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