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Dynamic Properties of an Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate– and Thapsigargin-insensitive Calcium Pool in Mammalian Cell Lines

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      The functional characteristics of a nonacidic, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate– and thapsigargin-insensitive Ca2+ pool have been characterized in mammalian cells derived from the rat pituitary gland (GH3, GC, and GH3B6), the adrenal tissue (PC12), and mast cells (RBL-1). This Ca2+ pool is released into the cytoplasm by the Ca2+ ionophores ionomycin or A23187 after the discharge of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate–sensitive store with an agonist coupled to phospholipase C activation and/or thapsigargin. The amount of Ca2+ trapped within this pool increased significantly after a prolonged elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration elicited by activation of Ca2+ influx. This pool was affected neither by caffeine-ryanodine nor by mitochondrial uncouplers. Probing mitochondrial Ca2+ with recombinant aequorin confirmed that this pool did not coincide with mitochondria, whereas its homogeneous distribution across the cytosol, as revealed by confocal microscopy, and its insensitivity to brefeldin A make localization within the Golgi complex unlikely. A proton gradient as the driving mechanism for Ca2+ uptake was excluded since ionomycin is inefficient in releasing Ca2+ from acidic pools and Ca2+ accumulation/release in/from this store was unaffected by monensin or NH4Cl, drugs known to collapse organelle acidic pH gradients. Ca2+ sequestration inside this pool, thus, may occur through a low-affinity, high-capacity Ca2+–ATPase system, which is, however, distinct from classical endosarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+–ATPases. The cytological nature and functional role of this Ca2+ storage compartment are discussed.

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        In cells treated with brefeldin A (BFA), movement of newly synthesized membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus was blocked. Surprisingly, the glycoproteins retained in the ER were rapidly processed by cis/medial Golgi enzymes but not by trans Golgi enzymes. An explanation for these observations was provided from morphological studies at both the light and electron microscopic levels using markers for the cis/medial and trans Golgi. They revealed a rapid and dramatic redistribution to the ER of components of the cis/medial but not the trans Golgi in response to treatment with BFA. Upon removal of BFA, the morphology of the Golgi apparatus was rapidly reestablished and proteins normally transported out of the ER were efficiently and rapidly sorted to their final destinations. These results suggest that BFA disrupts a dynamic membrane-recycling pathway between the ER and cis/medial Golgi, effectively blocking membrane transport out of but not back to the ER.
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          Depletion of intracellular calcium stores activates a calcium current in mast cells.

           M Hoth,  Marsha Penner (1992)
          In many cell types, receptor-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores is followed by Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. The sustained entry of Ca2+ is thought to result partly from the depletion of intracellular Ca2+ pools. Most investigations have characterized Ca2+ influx indirectly by measuring Ca(2+)-activated currents or using Fura-2 quenching by Mn2+, which in some cells enters the cells by the same influx pathway. But only a few studies have investigated this Ca2+ entry pathway more directly. We have combined patch-clamp and Fura-2 measurements to monitor membrane currents in mast cells under conditions where intracellular Ca2+ stores were emptied by either inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, ionomycin, or excess of the Ca2+ chelator EGTA. The depletion of Ca2+ pools by these independent mechanisms commonly induced activation of a sustained calcium inward current that was highly selective for Ca2+ ions over Ba2+, Sr2+ and Mn2+. This Ca2+ current, which we term ICRAC (calcium release-activated calcium), is not voltage-activated and shows a characteristic inward rectification. It may be the mechanism by which electrically nonexcitable cells maintain raised intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and replenish their empty Ca2+ stores after receptor stimulation.

            Author and article information

            Department of Biomedical Sciences and Italian Research Council (CNR) Center for the Study of Biomembranes, University of Padova, 35121 Padova, Italy
            J Cell Biol
            The Journal of Cell Biology
            The Rockefeller University Press
            27 January 1997
            : 136
            : 2
            : 355-366

            Cell biology


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