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      Which factors determine clinicians’ policy and attitudes towards medication and parent training for children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?


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          Behavioral parent and teacher training and stimulant medication are recommended interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, not all children with ADHD receive this evidence-based care, and the aim of the current study was to find out why. More specifically, we investigated clinicians’ policy, guideline use, and attitudes towards medication and parent training when treating children with ADHD, as well as several factors that could affect this. A total of 219 Dutch clinicians (mainly psychologists, psychiatrists and educationalists) completed a survey. Clinicians were likely to recommend medication more often than parent training, and clinicians’ policy to recommend medication and parent training was positively associated with their attitudes towards these interventions. Less experienced clinicians and those with a non-medical background reported lower rates of guideline use, whereas clinicians with a medical background reported less positive attitudes towards parent training. Furthermore, a substantial portion of the clinicians based their decision to recommend parent training on their clinical judgement (e.g., prior estimations of efficacy, perceived low abilities/motivation of parents), and many clinicians reported barriers for referral to parent training, such as waiting lists or a lack of skilled staff. To achieve better implementation of evidence-based care for children with ADHD, guidelines should be communicated better towards clinicians. Researchers and policy-makers should further focus on barriers that prevent implementation of parent training, which are suggested by the discrepancy between clinicians’ overall positive attitude towards parent training and the relatively low extent to which clinicians actually advise parent training.

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          G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences

          G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
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            Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are widely debated, fueled by variations in prevalence estimates across countries, time, and broadening diagnostic criteria. We conducted a meta-analysis to: establish a benchmark pooled prevalence for ADHD; examine whether estimates have increased with publication of different editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); and explore the effect of study features on prevalence.
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              Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments.

              Nonpharmacological treatments are available for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although their efficacy remains uncertain. The authors undertook meta-analyses of the efficacy of dietary (restricted elimination diets, artificial food color exclusions, and free fatty acid supplementation) and psychological (cognitive training, neurofeedback, and behavioral interventions) ADHD treatments. Using a common systematic search and a rigorous coding and data extraction strategy across domains, the authors searched electronic databases to identify published randomized controlled trials that involved individuals who were diagnosed with ADHD (or who met a validated cutoff on a recognized rating scale) and that included an ADHD outcome. Fifty-four of the 2,904 nonduplicate screened records were included in the analyses. Two different analyses were performed. When the outcome measure was based on ADHD assessments by raters closest to the therapeutic setting, all dietary (standardized mean differences=0.21-0.48) and psychological (standardized mean differences=0.40-0.64) treatments produced statistically significant effects. However, when the best probably blinded assessment was employed, effects remained significant for free fatty acid supplementation (standardized mean difference=0.16) and artificial food color exclusion (standardized mean difference=0.42) but were substantially attenuated to nonsignificant levels for other treatments. Free fatty acid supplementation produced small but significant reductions in ADHD symptoms even with probably blinded assessments, although the clinical significance of these effects remains to be determined. Artificial food color exclusion produced larger effects but often in individuals selected for food sensitivities. Better evidence for efficacy from blinded assessments is required for behavioral interventions, neurofeedback, cognitive training, and restricted elimination diets before they can be supported as treatments for core ADHD symptoms.

                Author and article information

                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                14 February 2021
                14 February 2021
                : 31
                : 3
                : 483-493
                [1 ]GRID grid.4494.d, ISNI 0000 0000 9558 4598, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, , University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, ; Groningen, the Netherlands
                [2 ]GRID grid.7177.6, ISNI 0000000084992262, Department of Psychology, , University of Amsterdam, ; Amsterdam, the Netherlands
                [3 ]Academic Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Specialized Youth Care, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
                [4 ]GRID grid.509540.d, ISNI 0000 0004 6880 3010, Amsterdam UMC, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ; Amsterdam, the Netherlands
                [5 ]GRID grid.5491.9, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9297, School of Psychology, , University of Southampton, ; Southampton, UK
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 14 July 2020
                : 31 January 2021
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001826, ZonMW;
                Award ID: 729300013
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                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2022

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adhd),children,guidelines,medication,parent training,psychosocial interventions


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