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      Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system

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          Abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii infects humans through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), which elicits humoral immune response with specific antibodies. The expression of the ABO blood group glycoconjugates also occurs in this same system and may influence the human susceptibility of infection by T. gondii. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ABO blood group phenotypes and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Data - including age, results of serology tests for T. gondii infection and ABO blood group phenotypes - were assembled from the medical records of 1,006 pregnant women attended in the Base Hospital of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 2001 and 2004. The chi-square test was used to compare the results with the level of significance set at 5%. Of the studied cases, 64.1% (645/1006) and 35.9% (391/1006) presented respectively positive and negative serology tests for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The mean age of those who tested positive was higher than those with negative serology tests (p = 0.0004). The frequencies of ABO blood group phenotypes were similar in those with and without anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.35). In conclusion, the ABO blood group system is not associated with the presence or absence of anti-T. gondii antibodies.

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          The relationship between blood groups and disease.

          The relative contribution of founder effects and natural selection to the observed distribution of human blood groups has been debated since blood group frequencies were shown to differ between populations almost a century ago. Advances in our understanding of the migration patterns of early humans from Africa to populate the rest of the world obtained through the use of Y chromosome and mtDNA markers do much to inform this debate. There are clear examples of protection against infectious diseases from inheritance of polymorphisms in genes encoding and regulating the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in bodily secretions particularly in respect of Helicobacter pylori, norovirus, and cholera infections. However, available evidence suggests surviving malaria is the most significant selective force affecting the expression of blood groups. Red cells lacking or having altered forms of blood group-active molecules are commonly found in regions of the world in which malaria is endemic, notably the Fy(a-b-) phenotype and the S-s- phenotype in Africa and the Ge- and SAO phenotypes in South East Asia. Founder effects provide a more convincing explanation for the distribution of the D- phenotype and the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in Europe and Central Asia.
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            Intracellular parasite invasion strategies.

            L. Sibley (2004)
            Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called "gliding" to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.
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              Engineering lepidopteran insect cells for sialoglycoprotein production by genetic transformation with mammalian beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase and alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase genes.

              Recombinant mammalian glycoproteins produced by the baculovirus-insect cell expression system usually do not have structurally authentic glycans. One reason for this limitation is the virtual absence in insect cells of certain glycosyltransferases, which are required for the biosynthesis of complex, terminally sialylated glycoproteins by mammalian cells. In this study, we genetically transformed insect cells with mammalian beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase and alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase genes. This produced a new insect cell line that can express both genes, serve as hosts for baculovirus infection, and produce foreign glycoproteins with terminally sialylated N-glycans.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                jvatitd
                Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
                J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis
                Centro de Estudos de Venenos e Animais Peçonhentos - CEVAP, Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP (Botucatu )
                1678-9199
                2011
                : 17
                : 2
                : 184-189
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto Brazil
                [2 ] Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto Brazil
                Article
                S1678-91992011000200009
                10.1590/S1678-91992011000200009
                86b2db19-3204-4e8a-8878-8f080dbcf469

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1678-9199&lng=en
                Categories
                TOXICOLOGY
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

                Toxicology,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                human blood groups,Toxoplasma gondii,toxoplasmosis,ABO blood group,pregnant women

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