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      End-stage renal disease in North Africa.

      Kidney International. Supplement

      Africa, Northern, epidemiology, Humans, Incidence, Kidney Failure, Chronic, etiology, therapy

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          There are many similarities in the profile of chronic renal disease in the five North African countries, reflecting their close resemblance in ethnic background, bioecology and socioeconomic standards. The incidence of renal disease is much higher than that in the West, yet the prevalence is relatively lower, which mirrors the inadequacy of medical care facilities. The principal causes of end-stage chronic renal disease (ESRD) are interstitial nephritis (14 to 32%), often attributed to environmental pollution and inadvertent use of medications; glomerulonephritis (11 to 24%), mostly mesangioproliferative and focal segmental sclerosis; diabetes (5 to 20%) and nephrosclerosis (5 to 21%). Obstructive/reflux nephropathy, attributed to urinary schistosomiasis, is common in Egypt (7%), Libya and Southern Algeria. Primary urolithiasis is a frequent cause of obstructive nephropathy in the western (hyperoxaluria) and middle (cystinuria) regions. The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing, particularly the diffuse interstitial and hematogenous forms. It is responsible also for 10 to 40% of renal amyloidosis. The latter is also frequently associated with familial Mediterranean fever. Sickle cell anemia is an important health problem in the west, leading to a wide range of glomerular and tubulointerstitial nephropathies. Takayasu disease is increasingly recognized as a cause of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension. The management of ESRD is largely influenced by late referral, co-morbidities and lack of dialysis facilities. Hemodialysis is the most frequent modality of renal replacement therapy (RRT). CAPD is used sporadically. Renal transplantation, largely from live (often unrelated) donors, is offered to less than 5% of patients with ESRD. The reported outcome of RRT generally conforms with international standards.

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          Africa, Northern, epidemiology, Humans, Incidence, Kidney Failure, Chronic, etiology, therapy


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