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      Treatment Adherence Among Patients with Five Dermatological Diseases and Four Treatment Types - a Cross-Sectional Study

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          Treatment non-adherence leads to negative therapeutic outcomes and financial burdens on the healthcare system. This study aims to compare the mean adherence scores among patients with five dermatological diseases and four treatment types and to identify the associated patient-related factors.

          Patients and methods

          This is a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2019 to August 2019. The questionnaire was distributed among patients attending the outpatient dermatology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It included 2330 patients who were over 16 years old and diagnosed with any of the five dermatological diseases (psoriasis, chronic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, hair growth disorders, and vitiligo). The 12-item Medication Adherence Scale was used to quantify the mean adherence score.


          Patients with psoriasis or chronic dermatitis were less adherent to treatments than patients with acne vulgaris, hair growth disorder, or vitiligo. Oral treatment and phototherapy had higher mean adherence scores than injection or topical treatment. High adherence was found in female, single patients; those who did not feel stigmatized from using treatment; those who did not have bad experience with the treatment; those who did not suffer from forgetfulness; those who connected receiving treatment with a habit; those who did not lack treatment responsiveness; those who had an excellent relationship with a dermatologist; and patients with a lesion in an exposed area. Stepwise multiple linear regression was also used to identify the independent variables related to adherence score.


          Psoriasis and chronic dermatitis patients had the lowest mean adherence scores. Patient who were on oral medication had the highest adherence score, while those on topical medication had the lowest score. The thoughtful consideration of factors associated with high adherence is important for optimal therapeutic outcomes.

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          Most cited references 30

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          New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy fill rates in seniors with hypertension.

          To evaluate the association and concordance of the new 8-item self-report Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) with pharmacy fill data in a sample of community-dwelling seniors with hypertension. Cross-sectional study. Pharmacy records for antihypertensive medications were abstracted for 87 managed care adult patients with hypertension 65 years and older who completed a survey that included the MMAS. Continuous single-interval medication availability (CSA), medication possession ratio (MPR), and continuous multiple-interval medication gaps (CMG) were calculated using pharmacy data. The MMAS adherence was categorized as high, medium, and low (MMAS scores of 8, 6 to <8, and <6, respectively); pharmacy fill nonpersistence was defined as less than 0.8 for CSA and MPR and as greater than 0.2 for CMG. Overall, 58%, 33%, and 9% of participants had high, medium, and low medication adherence, respectively, by the MMAS. After adjustment for demographics and in comparison to high adherers on the MMAS, patients with low MMAS adherence were 6.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48-19.10) times more likely to have nonpersistent pharmacy fill adherence by CSA and were 5.22 (95% CI, 1.88-14.50) times more likely to have nonpersistent pharmacy fill adherence by MPR. Concordance between the MMAS and CSA, MPR, and CMG was 75% or higher. The MMAS is significantly associated with antihypertensive drug pharmacy refill adherence. Although further validation of the MMAS is needed, it may be useful in identifying low medication adherers in clinical settings.
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            Economic impact of medication non-adherence by disease groups: a systematic review

            Objective To determine the economic impact of medication non-adherence across multiple disease groups. Design Systematic review. Evidence review A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus in September 2017. Studies quantifying the cost of medication non-adherence in relation to economic impact were included. Relevant information was extracted and quality assessed using the Drummond checklist. Results Seventy-nine individual studies assessing the cost of medication non-adherence across 14 disease groups were included. Wide-scoping cost variations were reported, with lower levels of adherence generally associated with higher total costs. The annual adjusted disease-specific economic cost of non-adherence per person ranged from $949 to $44 190 (in 2015 US$). Costs attributed to ‘all causes’ non-adherence ranged from $5271 to $52 341. Medication possession ratio was the metric most used to calculate patient adherence, with varying cut-off points defining non-adherence. The main indicators used to measure the cost of non-adherence were total cost or total healthcare cost (83% of studies), pharmacy costs (70%), inpatient costs (46%), outpatient costs (50%), emergency department visit costs (27%), medical costs (29%) and hospitalisation costs (18%). Drummond quality assessment yielded 10 studies of high quality with all studies performing partial economic evaluations to varying extents. Conclusion Medication non-adherence places a significant cost burden on healthcare systems. Current research assessing the economic impact of medication non-adherence is limited and of varying quality, failing to provide adaptable data to influence health policy. The correlation between increased non-adherence and higher disease prevalence should be used to inform policymakers to help circumvent avoidable costs to the healthcare system. Differences in methods make the comparison among studies challenging and an accurate estimation of true magnitude of the cost impossible. Standardisation of the metric measures used to estimate medication non-adherence and development of a streamlined approach to quantify costs is required. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015027338.
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              The eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale MMAS: translation and validation of the Malaysian version.

              To translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Malaysian version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) among patients with type 2 diabetes. A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate MMAS into Malay language. It was later validated on a convenience sample of 223 type 2 diabetes outpatients between May and September 2009. Reliability was tested for internal consistency. Validity was confirmed using convergent and known group validity. Employing the recommended scoring method, the mean±SD of MMAS scores was 6.13±1.72. Moderate internal consistency was found (Cronbach's α=0.675), the test-retest reliability value was 0.816 (p<0.001). A positive correlation between the eight- and four-item MMAS was found (r=0.792; p<0.01). A significant relationship between MMAS categories and HbA1c categories (χ(2)=20.261; p≥0.001) was found. The MMAS sensitivity and specificity, with positive and negative predictive values were 77.61%, 45.37%, 46.84% and 76.56%, respectively. The findings of this validation study indicate that the Malaysian version of the MMAS is a reliable and valid measure of medication adherence which can now be used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Patient Prefer Adherence
                Patient Prefer Adherence
                Patient preference and adherence
                03 December 2019
                : 13
                : 2029-2038
                [1 ]College of Medicine, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]College of Pharmacy, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [4 ]Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Abdulmajeed Alajlan King Saud University , Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaTel +966 502223030 Email amajlan@ksu.edu.sa
                © 2019 Alsubeeh et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 4, References: 31, Pages: 10
                Original Research


                adherence, treatment, psoriasis, dermatitis, acne, vitiligo


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