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      Pulsatile Flow Improves Renal Function in High-Risk Cardiac Operations

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          Abstract

          The effects of pulsatile perfusion on microcirculation and renal function in high-risk patients were evaluated in this study. Pulsatile roller pumps with a pulsatile control module and membrane oxygenator were used in a clinical setting. 40 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with a high risk of either having chronically obstructive pulmonary disease or chronic renal failure were randomly included in the study to be perfused using pulsatile or continuous flows. Blood samples were collected at induction of anesthesia, at the time of aortic clamping and declamping and 1 and 24 h following cessation of the bypass. Urea and creatinine concentrations in blood were measured and systemic vascular resistance was calculated. Urine output, crystalloid and colloid infusions were recorded. We observed that pulsatile roller pump perfusion and the extracorporeal circuit used in the clinical study improved microcirculation and renal function in high-risk patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Cardiopulmonary bypass: Evidence or experience based?

          Evidence-based medicine is emerging as a new paradigm for medical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of scientific evidence supporting principles that are currently applied for cardiopulmonary bypass performance. A survey of all German departments of cardiac surgery regarding cardiopulmonary bypass performance disclosed major differences. Consequently, for 48 major principles of cardiopulmonary bypass performance, relevant Medical Subject Headings were identified, and a literature search of the Medline database was performed. Two sequentially applied sets of inclusion-exclusion criteria were selected to assess the best available evidence. Thirty-three thousand articles relating to the subject were identified. Among these, 1500 fulfilled the first set of inclusion criteria: meta-analysis of (randomized) controlled clinical trials and in vitro and animal studies. Rigorous methodological criteria were then applied to further select remaining publications. Ultimately, 225 articles referring to major cardiopulmonary bypass principles were identified as providing the best available evidence. These were graded according to their methodological rigor (susceptibility to bias). The scientific evidence on the investigated cardiopulmonary bypass principles did not prove to be of a high enough level to allow general recommendations to be made. The scientific data concerning the effectiveness and safety of key principles of cardiopulmonary bypass are insufficient in both amount and quality of scientific evidence to serve as a basis for practical, evidence-based guidelines.
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            Hemodynamic analysis could resolve the pulsatile blood flow controversy

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              Effects of perfusion mode on regional and global organ blood flow in a neonatal piglet model.

              Organ injury (brain, kidney, and heart) has been reported in up to 30% of pediatric open heart surgery patients after conventional hypothermic non-pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support with or without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The effects of pulsatile (with a Food and Drug Administration approved modified roller pump) versus non-pulsatile perfusion on regional and global cerebral, renal, and myocardial blood flow were investigated during and after CPB with 60 minutes of DHCA in a neonatal piglet model. Piglets, mean weight 3 kg, were used in both pulsatile (n = 7) and non-pulsatile (n = 7) groups. After initiation of CPB, all animals were subjected to hypothermia for 25 minutes, reducing the rectal temperatures to 18 degrees C, 60 minutes of DHCA followed by 10 minutes of cold reperfusion and 40 minutes of rewarming with a pump flow of 150 mL/kg/min. During cooling and rewarming, alpha-stat acid-base management was used. Differently labeled radioactive microspheres were injected pre-CPB, on normothermic CPB, pre-DHCA, post-DHCA, and after CPB to measure the regional and global cerebral, renal, and myocardial blood flows. Global cerebral blood flow was significantly higher in the pulsatile group compared to the non-pulsatile group at normothermic CPB (100.4 +/- 6.3 mL/100 gm/min versus 70.2 +/- 8.1 mL/100 gm/min, p < 0.05) and pre-DHCA (77.2 +/- 5.2 mL/100 gm/min versus 56.1 +/- 6.7 mL/100 gm/min, p < 0.05). Blood flow in cerebellum, basal ganglia, brain stem, and right and left cerebral hemispheres had an identical pattern with the global cerebral blood flow. Renal blood flow appeared higher in the pulsatile group compared to the non-pulsatile group during CPB, but the results were statistically significant only at post-CPB (94.8 +/- 9 mL/100 gm/min versus 22.5 +/- 22 mL/100 gm/min, p < 0.05). Pulsatile flow better maintained the myocardial blood flow compared to the non-pulsatile flow after CPB (316.6 +/- 45.5 mL/100 gm/min versus 188.2 +/- 19.5 mL/100 gm/min, p < 0.05). Pulsatile perfusion provides superior vital organ blood flow compared to non-pulsatile perfusion in this model.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2005
                September 2005
                04 October 2005
                : 23
                : 4
                : 263-267
                Affiliations
                aBaşkent University, Biomedical Engineering Department, bTYIH Hospital, Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic, cMESA Hospital Cardiovascular Surgery Clinic, and dChemical Engineering Department and Bioengineering Division, and TÜBITAK, Centre of Excellence – BIYOMÜ, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                85174 Blood Purif 2005;23:263–267
                10.1159/000085174
                15838160
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 27, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85174
                Categories
                Original Paper

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