To verify preliminary studies on patients with melanoma exposed to β-blockers that suggested a reduced risk of disease recurrence and death. Data were obtained from all consecutive patients diagnosed as having melanoma between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2009, at the Department of Dermatology of the University of Florence, Azienda Sanitaria di Firenze. Participants were excluded if at baseline they reported a previous diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma or another malignant disease. We also excluded participants with evidence of visceral, lymph nodal, and in-transit metastasis at the time of the diagnosis. Of 741 consecutive patients with melanoma, 79 (11%) were prescribed β-blockers (for hypertension in most cases) for 1 or more years (treated) and 662 (89%) were not (untreated). The multivariate Cox model indicated that the treated group had improved overall survival after a median follow-up of 4 years (P=.005). For each year of β-blocker use, the risk of death was reduced by 38%. The presence of hypertension, the use of antihypertensive agents for 1 or more years, or the use of other commonly used medicines were not associated with a better outcome for patients with melanoma. The results confirm and strengthen previous findings that β-blocker use is associated with a reduced risk of melanoma recurrence and death. The results also indicate the strong need for a randomized clinical trial to conclusively assess whether β-blockers afford protection against melanoma recurrence and death. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.