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      Current Attitudes to the Therapy of Vasculitis

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 22

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          Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) for the prevention of relapses of Wegener's granulomatosis. Dutch Co-Trimoxazole Wegener Study Group.

          Respiratory tract infections may trigger relapses in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis in remission. Uncontrolled data have suggested that treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) may be beneficial. We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of co-trimoxazole (800 mg of sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg of trimethoprim) given twice daily for 24 months in preventing relapses in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis in remission during or after treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone. Relapses and infections were assessed with predefined criteria based on clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings. Patients were evaluated at least once every three months for signs of disease activity, compliance with the treatment regimen, side effects of the therapy, and evidence of infections. Titers of serum antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were measured serially. Forty-one patients were assigned to receive co-trimoxazole, and 40 to receive placebo. In 8 of the 41 patients in the co-trimoxazole group (20 percent), the drug had to be stopped because of side effects. According to life-table analysis, 82 percent of the patients remained in remission at 24 months, as compared with 60 percent of the patients in the placebo group (relative risk of relapse, 0.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.98). There were fewer respiratory tract infections (P = 0.005) and non-respiratory tract infections (P = 0.05) in the co-trimoxazole group than in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers at any time. Proportional-hazards regression analysis identified treatment with co-trimoxazole as an independent factor associated with prolonged disease-free survival and a positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody test at the start of treatment as a risk factor for relapse. Treatment with co-trimoxazole reduces the incidence of relapses in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis in remission.
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            Prediction of relapses in Wegener's granulomatosis by measurement of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels: a prospective study.

            Prediction of relapses in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) by measuring levels of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) directed against proteinase 3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO) remains a controversial issue. To assess the value of serial quantification of ANCA by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for monitoring disease activity in patients with WG, a prospective observational study was conducted in patients with WG attending an outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. One hundred patients with WG (85 with PR3-ANCA, 15 with MPO-ANCA) were studied prospectively from 1996 to 1998. Serum samples were obtained and analyzed every 2 months for ANCA levels. Disease activity was prospectively assessed without knowledge of the ANCA levels. Relapses occurred in 37 of 100 patients (37%). Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 patients showed a rise in the level of ANCA preceding their relapse, as detected by ELISA or IIF. The predictive value of an increase in ANCA titers for relapse was 57% (17 of 30) for cytoplasmic/classic ANCA (cANCA; by IIF), 71% (27 of 38) for PR3-ANCA (by ELISA), and 100% (3 of 3) for MPO-ANCA (by ELISA). The predictive value of a rise in ANCA as measured by ELISA or IIF did not substantially improve following concomitant measurement of the IgG3 subclass of PR3-ANCA. Forty-three percent of patients who showed a rise in cANCA (by IIF) and 29% with a rise in PR3-ANCA (by ELISA) did not subsequently experience a relapse. Serial measurement of ANCA levels is valuable for the early prediction of relapses in patients with WG.
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              Long-term followup of polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome: analysis of four prospective trials including 278 patients.

              To determine the long-term outcome of patients with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), to compare the long-term outcome with the overall French population, to evaluate the impact on outcome of the type of vasculitis, prognostic factors, and treatments administered at diagnosis, and to analyze treatment side effects and sequelae. Data from PAN, MPA, and CSS patients (n = 278) who were enrolled between 1980 and 1993 were collected in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed. Two prognostic scoring systems, the Five-Factors Score (FFS) and the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), were used to evaluate all patients at the time of diagnosis. The mean (+/- SD) followup of the entire population was 88.3 +/- 51.9 months (range 3 days to 192 months). Of the 85 deaths recorded, at least 41 were due to progressive vasculitis or its consequences. Death rates reflected disease severity, as assessed by the FFS (P = 0.004) and the BVAS (P or =2 (P = 0.041). Relapse rates were similar regardless of the treatment regimen; only patients treated with CS alone had uncontrolled disease. CYC was associated with a greater frequency of side effects (P < 0.00001). Rates of mortality due to PAN (related or unrelated to HBV), MPA, and CSS reflected disease severity and were higher than the mortality rate in the general population (P < 0.0004). Rates of relapse, more common in MPA than HBV-related PAN patients, did not reflect disease severity. Survival rates were better among the more severely ill patients who had received first-line CYC. Based on these findings, we recommend that the intensity of the initial treatment be consistent with the severity of the disease. The use of the FFS and BVAS scores improved the ability to evaluate the therapeutic response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2003
                2003
                24 September 2003
                : 26
                : 4
                : 231-239
                Affiliations
                Vasculitis and Lupus Clinic, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                72990 Kidney Blood Press Res 2003;26:231–239
                10.1159/000072990
                14504423
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 86, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/72990
                Categories
                Short Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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