Uremic pruritus (UP) is a common and incapacitating symptom in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). The pathogenesis of UP is multifactorial and complex. Particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant, is a mixture of particles with various chemical compositions. PM is associated with several allergic diseases, including dermatitis. To assess the role of PM (PM with a diameter of <10 μm [PM 10] and PM with a diameter of <2.5 μm [PM 2.5]) and other clinical variables in UP in patients on HD, we recruited 866 patients on maintenance HD (MHD). We analyzed the number of days of mean 24-hour PM 10 ≥125 μg/m 3/12 months (NDPM 10) or the number of days of mean 24-hour PM 2.5 ≥35 μg/m 3/12 months (NDPM 2.5) exceeding the standard level in the past 12 months respectively to determine the association with UP. In a multivariate logistic regression, HD duration, serum ferritin levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and NDPM 2.5 ≥116 days/12 months were positively associated with UP. This cross-sectional study showed that the number of days on which the environmental PM 2.5 exceeds the standard level might be associated with UP in patients on MHD.