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      Altitudinal Effects on Innate Immune Response of a Subterranean Rodent

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          Sex differences in immune responses

          Males and females differ in their immunological responses to foreign and self-antigens and show distinctions in innate and adaptive immune responses. Certain immunological sex differences are present throughout life, whereas others are only apparent after puberty and before reproductive senescence, suggesting that both genes and hormones are involved. Furthermore, early environmental exposures influence the microbiome and have sex-dependent effects on immune function. Importantly, these sex-based immunological differences contribute to variations in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and malignancies, susceptibility to infectious diseases and responses to vaccines in males and females. Here, we discuss these differences and emphasize that sex is a biological variable that should be considered in immunological studies.
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            A brief guide to model selection, multimodel inference and model averaging in behavioural ecology using Akaike’s information criterion

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              Ecological immunology: costly parasite defences and trade-offs in evolutionary ecology

              In the face of continuous threats from parasites, hosts have evolved an elaborate series of preventative and controlling measures - the immune system - in order to reduce the fitness costs of parasitism. However, these measures do have associated costs. Viewing an individual's immune response to parasites as being subject to optimization in the face of other demands offers potential insights into mechanisms of life history trade-offs, sexual selection, parasite-mediated selection and population dynamics. We discuss some recent results that have been obtained by practitioners of this approach in natural and semi-natural populations, and suggest some ways in which this field may progress in the near future.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoological Science
                Zoological Science
                Zoological Society of Japan
                0289-0003
                February 1 2020
                January 24 2020
                : 37
                : 1
                : 31
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Bülent Ecevit University, Farabi Campus, 67100, İncivez, Zonguldak, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, Tınaztepe Campus, 35390, Buca, İzmir, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Science, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Animal Behavior, Bielefeld University, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
                Article
                10.2108/zs190067
                86dba0a6-db52-45c4-9aee-9ffb2c522eb3
                © 2020
                History

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