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      Biological control in ornamental plants: from basic to applied knowledge Translated title: Controle Biológico em plantas ornamentais: do conhecimento básico ao aplicado

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          Abstract

          Abstract Biological control is a worldwide trend and has been prominent as an effective and compatible strategy for use in Integrated Pest Management programs. In Brazil, the control of these organisms using biological agents has been used in several agricultural systems, including floriculture. This paper approaches biological control from the perspective of the interaction between organisms in nature, applied as a pest management strategy. Knowledge about the dependence and reciprocity among populations in a natural environment is fundamental to understanding that this control method is nothing more than an exploiting of a natural ecological service. Considering that, for the biological control of a pest we must increase the population density of natural enemies, we report on the two main ways to achieve this increase: conservative biological control and augmentative biological control. The first is done by modifying the environment’s vegetation structure to favor natural enemies’ maintenance or their attraction to the crops. The second is done by mass rearing entomophagous and entomopathogen species with attributes that can ensure their function as control agents when released in crops. Among such agents, we emphasize those produced and marketed in Brazil for application in ornamental plants. Finally, we report on the technologies most recently employed to increase the appropriate use and the efficiency of these biological control agents.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo O controle biológico é uma tendência mundial e tem se destacado como uma estratégia eficaz e compatível para uso em programas de Manejo Integrado de Pragas. No Brasil, o controle desses organismos, envolvendo agentes biológicos, tem sido utilizado em diversos sistemas agrícolas, inclusive, na floricultura. Neste artigo, o controle biológico é abordado sob o ponto de vista natural, por meio da interação entre os organismos na natureza, e aplicado, como estratégia para o manejo de pragas. O conhecimento sobre a dependência e reciprocidade existentes entre as populações na natureza é fundamental para a conscientização de que esse método de controle consiste na exploração de um serviço ecológico natural. Tendo-se em vista que, para o controle biológico de uma praga, a densidade populacional dos inimigos naturais deve ser aumentada, relatamos sobre as duas principais formas para se atingir esse incremento: o controle biológico conservativo e controle biológico aumentativo. A primeira, por meio da modificação do ambiente de cultivo de modo a oferecer uma estrutura vegetacional que favoreça a manutenção e/ou atração dos inimigos naturais, e a segunda, por meio da criação massal de entomófagos e entomopatógenos com características que possam garantir sua função como agentes de controle por ocasião da sua liberação nos cultivos. Entre tais agentes, enfatizamos aqueles que são produzidos e comercializados no Brasil para aplicação em plantas ornamentais. Por fim, relatamos sobre as tecnologias que têm sido mais recentemente empregadas para incrementar o uso adequado e a eficiência desses agentes biocontroladores.

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          Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

          During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit.
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            Genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

            The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a potent vector of the chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue viruses, responsible for hundreds of millions of infections and over 50,000 human deaths per year. Mutagenesis in Ae. aegypti has been established with TALENs, ZFNs, and homing endonucleases, which require the engineering of DNA-binding protein domains to provide genomic target sequence specificity. Here, we describe the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate site-specific mutations in Ae. aegypti. This system relies on RNA-DNA base-pairing to generate targeting specificity, resulting in efficient and flexible genome-editing reagents. We investigate the efficiency of injection mix compositions, demonstrate the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to generate different types of mutations via disparate repair mechanisms, and report stable germline mutations in several genomic loci. This work offers a detailed exploration into the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in Ae. aegypti that should be applicable to non-model organisms previously out of reach of genetic modification.
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              Expression of dsRNA in recombinant Isaria fumosorosea strain targets the TLR7 gene in Bemisia tabaci

              Background RNA interference (RNAi) technology shows a great potential in controlling agricultural pests, despite the difficulty of introducing exogenous dsRNA/siRNA into target pests. Isaria fumosorosea is a common fungal pathogen of the B-biotype Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), which is a widespread pest. Entomopathogenic fungi directly penetrate the cuticle and invade insect hemocoel. Application of I. fumosorosea expressing dsRNA of whitefly immunity-related gene may aid in developing RNAi technology to effectively control whiteflies. Methods A dsRNA expression plasmid, psTLR7, was constructed by introducing the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene of B-biotype whitefly to the silent vector, pSilent-1. The plasmid psTLR7 was transferred into the protoplast of the I. fumosorosea strain IfB01. Then, the recombinant strain was screened out based on the biological stability and bioactivity against whitefly. Results A genetically stable recombinant strain IfB01-TRL7 was screened out. The impact of IfB01-TRL7 against whitefly TRL7 gene was validated by qPCR. Lower expression levels of the TLR7 gene was observed in the whiteflies infected by the recombinant strain. The bioassay results indicated that compared to IfB01 strain, IfB01-TRL7 increased the mortality of whitefly nymphs, and decreased and shortened the values of LC50 and LT50, thus indicating higher virulence of IfB01-TRL7. Conclusion The expression of the dsRNA of whitefly TLR7 gene in recombinant I. fumosorosea strain successfully knocked down the host target gene by infecting the nymphs and enhanced the whiteflies mortality. The present study will give insight to new application of RNAi technology for more effective biocontrol of this pests. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12896-015-0170-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                oh
                Ornamental Horticulture
                Ornam. Hortic.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Floricultura e Plantas Ornamentais (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                2447-536X
                June 2021
                : 27
                : 2
                : 255-267
                Affiliations
                [1] Lavras Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Lavras orgdiv1Escola de Ciências Agrárias orgdiv2Departamento de Entomologia Brazil
                Article
                S2447-536X2021000200255 S2447-536X(21)02700200255
                10.1590/2447-536x.v27i2.2365
                86deee8e-2642-4d77-9ba7-70bbca6e88cb

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 17 March 2021
                : 05 March 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 69, Pages: 13
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI: Full text available only in PDF format (EN)
                Categories
                Review Article

                Manejo integrado de pragas,Inimigos naturais,technological innovations,floriculture,Integrated Pest Management,Natural enemies,inovações tecnológicas,floricultura

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