02 June 2006
Background/Aim: While the familial nature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized, it has primarily been defined from studies of first-degree relatives of selected sets of cases. The goal of this study is an evaluation of the familial clustering of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and CKD mortality using a population-based genealogy of Utah. This is the first population-based analysis of the familial component of ESRD and non-ESRD CKD. Methods: We have defined two distinct patient groups for this analysis, using individuals with death certificates in the Utah Population Database indicating ESRD (n = 192) and non-ESRD CKD (n = 335) as the cause of death. Two measures of familiality were used: (1) relative risk (RR) of CKD or ESRD death in relatives of cases and (2) an average relatedness statistic, i.e., the Genealogical Index of Familiality. Results: The RR for dying with ESRD among the first-degree relatives of individuals dying with ESRD is estimated to be 10.1 (p = 0.0007, 95% confidence interval CI 2.76–25.95), but is not significantly elevated among second-degree relatives. The RR for dying with non-ESRD CKD among first- and second-degree relatives of individuals dying with non-ESRD CKD was 3.89 (p = 0.0051, 95% CI 1.43–8.46) and 3.11 (p = 0.04, 95% CI 0.85–7.95), respectively. The Genealogical Index of Familiality statistic demonstrated that the individuals dying with ESRD are significantly more related than expected in this population (p = 0.013); significant excess relatedness was also observed for individuals dying with non-ESRD CKD (p = 0.006), suggesting a familial component for both, with evidence for common environmental and genetic effects. Conclusion: The results of this analysis of individuals dying with ESRD and non-ESRD CKD supports a significant and independent familial component to both conditions, suggesting a heritable factor playing a role.