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      Tanshinone IIA ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced inflammatory bowel disease via the pregnane X receptor

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          Abstract

          Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) (C 19H 18O 3) is one of the major active lipophilic components in a conventional Chinese medicine called danshen, and it has long been used in the People’s Republic of China and other neighboring countries to treat patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous experiments by many teams determined which mechanism of Tan IIA is relevant to the treatment of IBD associated with inflammation and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The current study demonstrated that Tan IIA is an efficacious PXR agonist and its ability to induce CYP3A4 mRNA and protein expression was mediated by the transactivation of PXR, a known target of abrogating inflammation in IBD. Clinical symptoms in mice and histological assessment data suggested that administration of Tan IIA in mice demonstrated significant protection and showed that in DSS-induced IBD it acts in a concentration-dependent manner. PXR-silenced mice treated with Tan IIA demonstrated low protection against DSS-induced mouse IBD and exacerbated the severity of IBD compared with wild-type mice; PXR-silenced mice demonstrated the necessity for PXR in Tan IIA-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes. The IBD treatment effects of Tan IIA are partially due to PXR-mediated upregulation of xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory mediators. The novel findings reported here may contribute to the effective utilization of Tan IIA and its derivatives as a PXR ligand in the treatment of human IBD. This suggests that Tan IIA may have considerable clinical utility.

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          Most cited references 40

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          RNA interference targeting Fas protects mice from fulminant hepatitis.

          RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence gene expression post-transcriptionally. However, its potential to treat or prevent disease remains unproven. Fas-mediated apoptosis is implicated in a broad spectrum of liver diseases, where inhibiting hepatocyte death is life-saving. We investigated the in vivo silencing effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting the gene Fas (also known as Tnfrsf6), encoding the Fas receptor, to protect mice from liver failure and fibrosis in two models of autoimmune hepatitis. Intravenous injection of Fas siRNA specifically reduced Fas mRNA levels and expression of Fas protein in mouse hepatocytes, and the effects persisted without diminution for 10 days. Hepatocytes isolated from mice treated with Fas siRNA were resistant to apoptosis when exposed to Fas-specific antibody or co-cultured with concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated hepatic mononuclear cells. Treatment with Fas siRNA 2 days before ConA challenge abrogated hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory infiltration and markedly reduced serum concentrations of transaminases. Administering Fas siRNA beginning one week after initiating weekly ConA injections protected mice from liver fibrosis. In a more fulminant hepatitis induced by injecting agonistic Fas-specific antibody, 82% of mice treated with siRNA that effectively silenced Fas survived for 10 days of observation, whereas all control mice died within 3 days. Silencing Fas expression with RNAi holds therapeutic promise to prevent liver injury by protecting hepatocytes from cytotoxicity.
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            Protection against lethal influenza virus challenge by RNA interference in vivo.

            Influenza virus infection is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Current vaccination strategies and antiviral drugs provide limited protection; therefore, new strategies are needed. RNA interference is an effective means of suppressing virus replication in vitro. Here we demonstrate that treatment with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for highly conserved regions of the nucleoprotein or acidic polymerase inhibits influenza A virus replication in vivo. Delivery of these siRNAs significantly reduced lung virus titers in infected mice and protected animals from lethal challenge. This protection was specific and not mediated by an antiviral IFN response. Moreover, influenza-specific siRNA treatment was broadly effective and protected animals against lethal challenge with highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes. These results indicate that RNA interference is promising for control of influenza virus infection, as well as other viral infections.
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              Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

              The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of water and ethanol extracts of 14 Chinese medicinal plants were investigated and also their total phenolics and flavonoid contents measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated in a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae , whereas the radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activities of the plant extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Their cytotoxic activities against macrophages were determined by Alamar Blue assay. Four plants, namely, Scutellaria baicalensis , Taxillus chinensis , Rheum officinale , and Sophora japonica , showed significant antioxidant activity in both yeast model and also free radical scavenging methods. The ethanol extract of S. japonica showed highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids (91.33 GAE mg/g and 151.86 QE mg/g, respectively). A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenolics and flavonoid contents indicates that these compounds are likely to be the main antioxidants contributing to the observed activities. Five plant extracts (S. baicalensis, T. chinensis, S. japonica, Mahonia fortunei , and Sophora flavescens ) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of NO and TNF-α with low IC(50) values. These findings suggest that some of the medicinal herbs studied in this paper are good sources of antioxidants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                07 December 2015
                : 9
                : 6343-6362
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Air Force General Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yue Gao; Yuguang Wang, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Taiping Road 27, Beijing 100850, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 6693 1312; 86 10 6693 2201, Fax +86 10 6821 4653; 86 10 6821 4653, Email gaoyue@ 123456bmi.ac.cn ; wangyg@ 123456bmi.ac.cn
                Article
                dddt-9-6343
                10.2147/DDDT.S79388
                4676510
                © 2015 Zhang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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