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      Yeasts isolated from a lotic continental environment in Brazil show potential to produce amylase, cellulase and protease

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          • Yeast isolated from a lotic ecosystem in Brazil show high enzymatic production.

          • One third of the individuals tested have demostrated the ability to secrete more than one enzyme.

          • Naganishia diffluens and Apiotrichum mycotoxinivorans show potential applicability as biocatalysts.

          • Individuals from Apiotrichum mycotoxinivorans were the best producers of amylase and cellulase.


          Yeasts have wide applicability in the industrial field, as in the production of enzymes used in biocatalysts. Biocatalysts are more efficient when compared to chemical catalysts, with emphasis on hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylase, cellulase and protease. Here we focused on prospecting yeasts, with a high capacity to synthesize hydrolytic enzymes, from a continental lotic ecosystem environment in Brazil. 75 yeasts were grown in Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose (YPD) medium supplemented with antibacterial and their capacity for enzymatic production was tested in specific media. Accordingly, 64 yeasts showed enzyme production capacity. From those, six showed good enzyme indexes, 3 for amylase, 2 for cellulase and 1 for protease. All showed at least one hydrolytic enzyme activity for the tested enzymes (amylase, cellulase and protease), which suggested that the yeasts are metabolically active. By sequencing the 26S gene, we identified Naganishia diffluens and Apiotrichum mycotoxinivorans as the species with highest enzyme production activities. Those species showed potential for application as biological catalysts in the biotechnological scope, collaborating in a sustainable way for the development of industrial products.

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          Most cited references 48

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          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

            A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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              A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

               Motoo Kimura (1980)
              Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.

                Author and article information

                Biotechnol Rep (Amst)
                Biotechnol Rep (Amst)
                Biotechnology Reports
                29 May 2021
                June 2021
                29 May 2021
                : 30
                [a ]Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Brazil
                [b ]Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil
                [c ]Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Brazil
                [d ]Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec – Université Laval, Axe Oncologie, Québec, Québec, G1V 4G2, Canada
                [e ]Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec, G1R 3S3, Canada
                [f ]Pós-Graduação em Microbiologia do Departamento de Microbiologia/ICB/UFMG, Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Microbiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná - Unioeste, Rua da Faculdade, 645 - Jardim La Salle, CEP - 85903-000, Toledo, PR, Brazil. jessycakcarvalho@ 123456gmail.com
                S2215-017X(21)00046-1 e00630
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Research Article


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