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      Transcultural differences in suicide attempts among children and adolescents with and without migration background, a multicentre study: in Vienna, Berlin, Istanbul

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          Abstract

          While suicide can occur throughout the lifespan, worldwide suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people aged between 15 and 29 years. The aim of this multicentre study, conducted in Austria, Germany and Turkey, is to investigate the transcultural differences of suicide attempts among children and adolescents with and without migration background. The present study is a retrospective analyses of the records of 247 young people, who were admitted after a suicide attempt to Emergency Outpatient Clinics of Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the collaborating Universities including Medical University of Vienna, Charité University Medicine Berlin and Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine and Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Mental Health in Istanbul over a 3-year period. The results of the present study show significant transcultural differences between minors with and without migration background in regard to triggering reasons, method of suicide attempts and psychiatric diagnosis. The trigger event “intra-familial conflicts” and the use of “low-risk methods” for their suicide attempt were more frequent among patients with migration background. Moreover among native parents living in Vienna and Berlin divorce of parents were more frequent compared to parents living in Istanbul and migrants in Vienna. These results can be partly explained by cultural differences between migrants and host society. Also disadvantages in socio-economic situations of migrants and their poorer access to the healthcare system can mostly lead to acute and delayed treatments. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to understand better the impact of migration on the suicidal behaviour of young people.

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          A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory.

          The present article presents a meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. With 713 independent samples from 515 studies, the meta-analysis finds that intergroup contact typically reduces intergroup prejudice. Multiple tests indicate that this finding appears not to result from either participant selection or publication biases, and the more rigorous studies yield larger mean effects. These contact effects typically generalize to the entire outgroup, and they emerge across a broad range of outgroup targets and contact settings. Similar patterns also emerge for samples with racial or ethnic targets and samples with other targets. This result suggests that contact theory, devised originally for racial and ethnic encounters, can be extended to other groups. A global indicator of Allport's optimal contact conditions demonstrates that contact under these conditions typically leads to even greater reduction in prejudice. Closer examination demonstrates that these conditions are best conceptualized as an interrelated bundle rather than as independent factors. Further, the meta-analytic findings indicate that these conditions are not essential for prejudice reduction. Hence, future work should focus on negative factors that prevent intergroup contact from diminishing prejudice as well as the development of a more comprehensive theory of intergroup contact. Copyright 2006 APA.
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            Suicide and suicidal behavior.

            Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.
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              Risk factors for suicide in individuals with depression: a systematic review.

              Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in people who die by suicide. Awareness of risk factors for suicide in depression is important for clinicians. In a systematic review of the international literature we identified cohort and case-control studies of people with depression in which suicide was an outcome, and conducted meta-analyses of potential risk factors. Nineteen studies (28 publications) were included. Factors significantly associated with suicide were: male gender (OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.08-2.86), family history of psychiatric disorder (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.00-1.97), previous attempted suicide (OR=4.84, 95% CI=3.26-7.20), more severe depression (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.05-4.60), hopelessness (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.49-3.23) and comorbid disorders, including anxiety (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.03-2.45) and misuse of alcohol and drugs (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.77-2.66). There were fewer studies than suspected. Interdependence between risk factors could not be examined. The factors identified should be included in clinical assessment of risk in depressed patients. Further large-scale studies are required to identify other relevant factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                tuerkan.akkaya-kalayci@meduniwien.ac.at
                Journal
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1018-8827
                1435-165X
                29 May 2021
                29 May 2021
                2022
                : 31
                : 11
                : 1671-1683
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.22937.3d, ISNI 0000 0000 9259 8492, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Outpatient Clinic of Transcultural Psychiatry and Migration Induced Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence, , Medical University of Vienna, ; Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
                [2 ]GRID grid.22937.3d, ISNI 0000 0000 9259 8492, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, , Medical University of Vienna, ; Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
                [3 ]GRID grid.22937.3d, ISNI 0000 0000 9259 8492, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, , Medical University of Vienna, ; Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
                [4 ]GRID grid.506076.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1797 5496, Department of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry, Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine, , İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, ; Kocamustafapasa Cd. No: 53, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey
                [5 ]GRID grid.459507.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0474 4306, Department of Psychology, , İstanbul Gelisim University, ; Cihangir Mahallesi Şehit Jandarma Komando Er Hakan Oner Sk. No:1, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
                [6 ]GRID grid.414850.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0642 8921, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, , Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Mental Health and Neurological Disorders, ; Zuhuratbaba Mah. Dr Tevfik Sağlam Cad. No:25/2, Bakirköy, Istanbul, Turkey
                [7 ]GRID grid.512925.8, ISNI 0000 0004 7592 6297, Department of Child and Adolescents Psychiatry, , Ankara City Hospital, AYBÜ Ankara Şehir Hastanesi Çocuk Hastanesi 06800 Bilkent, ; Ankara, Turkey
                [8 ]GRID grid.6363.0, ISNI 0000 0001 2218 4662, Departement of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychsomatics and Psychotherapy, , Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, ; Campus Virchow, Augustenbruger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
                [9 ]GRID grid.22937.3d, ISNI 0000 0000 9259 8492, Postgraduate University Program Transcultural Medicine and Diversity Care, , Medical University of Vienna, ; Spitalgasse 23, 1090 Vienna, Austria
                Article
                1805
                10.1007/s00787-021-01805-7
                9666344
                34050830
                8716b0d3-1c0d-4837-a5f2-a6ec4b2be40d
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 20 May 2020
                : 15 May 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Scientific Fund of the Mayor of the City of Vienna
                Award ID: 12001
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Medical University of Vienna
                Categories
                Original Contribution
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2022

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                transcultural differences,suicide attempts,children and adolescents,risk factors,migration background

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