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      Dendritic Cells and Cancer: From Biology to Therapeutic Intervention

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          Abstract

          Inducing effective anti-tumor immunity has become a major therapeutic strategy against cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogenous population of antigen presenting cells that infiltrate tumors. While DC play a critical role in the priming and maintenance of local immunity, their functions are often diminished, or suppressed, by factors encountered in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, DC populations with immunosuppressive activities are also recruited to tumors, limiting T cell infiltration and promoting tumor growth. Anti-cancer therapies can impact the function of tumor-associated DC and/or alter their phenotype. Therefore, the design of effective anti-cancer therapies for clinical translation should consider how best to boost tumor-associated DC function to drive anti-tumor immunity. In this review, we discuss the different subsets of tumor-infiltrating DC and their role in anti-tumor immunity. Moreover, we describe strategies to enhance DC function within tumors and harness these cells for effective tumor immunotherapy.

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          Most cited references 130

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          Batf3 deficiency reveals a critical role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in cytotoxic T cell immunity.

          Although in vitro observations suggest that cross-presentation of antigens is mediated primarily by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, in vivo analysis has been hampered by the lack of systems that selectively eliminate this cell lineage. We show that deletion of the transcription factor Batf3 ablated development of CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, allowing us to examine their role in immunity in vivo. Dendritic cells from Batf3-/- mice were defective in cross-presentation, and Batf3-/- mice lacked virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses to West Nile virus. Importantly, rejection of highly immunogenic syngeneic tumors was impaired in Batf3-/- mice. These results suggest an important role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells and cross-presentation in responses to viruses and in tumor rejection.
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            NK Cells Stimulate Recruitment of cDC1 into the Tumor Microenvironment Promoting Cancer Immune Control

            Summary Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1) are critical for antitumor immunity, and their abundance within tumors is associated with immune-mediated rejection and the success of immunotherapy. Here, we show that cDC1 accumulation in mouse tumors often depends on natural killer (NK) cells that produce the cDC1 chemoattractants CCL5 and XCL1. Similarly, in human cancers, intratumoral CCL5, XCL1, and XCL2 transcripts closely correlate with gene signatures of both NK cells and cDC1 and are associated with increased overall patient survival. Notably, tumor production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) leads to evasion of the NK cell-cDC1 axis in part by impairing NK cell viability and chemokine production, as well as by causing downregulation of chemokine receptor expression in cDC1. Our findings reveal a cellular and molecular checkpoint for intratumoral cDC1 recruitment that is targeted by tumor-derived PGE2 for immune evasion and that could be exploited for cancer therapy.
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              Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

              Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                cancers
                Cancers
                MDPI
                2072-6694
                11 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 11
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Phylogica, Harry Perkins Institute, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia; b.c.wylie@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Melbourne, Bio21, Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia; cmacri@ 123456unimelb.edu.au (C.M.); jmintern@ 123456unimelb.edu.au (J.D.M.)
                [3 ]Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Northern Entrance, Perth Children’s Hospital, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jason.waithman@ 123456telethonkids.org.au ; Tel.: +61-08-6319-1744
                [†]

                Joint first author.

                [‡]

                Co-senior author.

                Article
                cancers-11-00521
                10.3390/cancers11040521
                6521027
                30979057
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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