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      The ash dieback invasion of Europe was founded by two genetically divergent individuals


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          Accelerating international trade and climate change make pathogen spread an increasing concern. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, the causal agent of ash dieback, is a fungal pathogen that has been moving across continents and hosts from Asian to European ash. Most European common ash trees ( Fraxinus excelsior) are highly susceptible to H. fraxineus, although a minority (~5%) have partial resistance to dieback. Here, we assemble and annotate a H. fraxineus draft genome which approaches chromosome scale. Pathogen genetic diversity across Europe and in Japan, reveals a strong bottleneck in Europe, though a signal of adaptive diversity remains in key host interaction genes. We find that the European population was founded by two divergent haploid individuals. Divergence between these haplotypes represents the ancestral polymorphism within a large source population. Subsequent introduction from this source would greatly increase adaptive potential of the pathogen. Thus, further introgression of H. fraxineus into Europe represents a potential threat and Europe-wide biological security measures are needed to manage this disease.

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          Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance.

          We hypothesize that the evolutionary potential of a pathogen population is reflected in its population genetic structure. Pathogen populations with a high evolutionary potential are more likely to overcome genetic resistance than pathogen populations with a low evolutionary potential. We propose a flexible framework to predict the evolutionary potential of pathogen populations based on analysis of their genetic structure. According to this framework, pathogens that pose the greatest risk of breaking down resistance genes have a mixed reproduction system, a high potential for genotype flow, large effective population sizes, and high mutation rates. The lowest risk pathogens are those with strict asexual reproduction, low potential for gene flow, small effective population sizes, and low mutation rates. We present examples of high-risk and low-risk pathogens. We propose general guidelines for a rational approach to breed durable resistance according to the evolutionary potential of the pathogen.
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            Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP): overview of the technology and its application in crop improvement

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              Comparison between different D-Dimer cutoff values to assess the individual risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism: analysis of results obtained in the DULCIS study

              D-dimer assay, generally evaluated according to cutoff points calibrated for VTE exclusion, is used to estimate the individual risk of recurrence after a first idiopathic event of venous thromboembolism (VTE).

                Author and article information

                Nat Ecol Evol
                Nat Ecol Evol
                Nature ecology & evolution
                24 April 2018
                23 April 2018
                June 2018
                23 October 2018
                : 2
                : 6
                : 1000-1008
                [1 ]The Earlham Institute, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UZ, UK
                [2 ]Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK
                [3 ]John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK
                [4 ]Institute of Evolutionary Biology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FL, UK
                [5 ]The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK
                [6 ]Graduate school of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan
                [7 ]Department of Botany, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0005 Japan
                [8 ]Fera Science Limited, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, UK
                [9 ]ANSES Laboratoire de la Santé des Végétaux, 54220 Malzéville, France
                [10 ]UMR IAM, INRA, Université de Lorraine, 54000 Nancy, France
                [11 ]Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås, Norway
                [12 ]Edinburgh Genomics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JT, UK
                [13 ]Natural History Museum, Department of Life Sciences, London SW7 5BD, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Authors: Mark McMullan (EI) Mark.McMullan@ 123456earlham.ac.uk , Matthew D. Clark (EI) matt.clark@ 123456nhm.ac.uk

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