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      Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

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          Abstract

          Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility.

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          Most cited references 161

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          Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

           N. Mosier (2005)
          Cellulosic plant material represents an as-of-yet untapped source of fermentable sugars for significant industrial use. Many physio-chemical structural and compositional factors hinder the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass. The goal of any pretreatment technology is to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to hydrolysis in order to improve the rate of enzyme hydrolysis and increase yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose or hemicellulose. These methods cause physical and/or chemical changes in the plant biomass in order to achieve this result. Experimental investigation of physical changes and chemical reactions that occur during pretreatment is required for the development of effective and mechanistic models that can be used for the rational design of pretreatment processes. Furthermore, pretreatment processing conditions must be tailored to the specific chemical and structural composition of the various, and variable, sources of lignocellulosic biomass. This paper reviews process parameters and their fundamental modes of action for promising pretreatment methods.
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            Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review

             Ye Sun,  Jiayang Cheng (2002)
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              Methods for Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Efficient Hydrolysis and Biofuel Production

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Enzyme Res
                ER
                Enzyme Research
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                2090-0414
                2011
                24 May 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32312, USA
                2Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600036, India
                Author notes
                *Subramanian Ramakrishnan: sramakrishnan@ 123456fsu.edu

                Academic Editor: Praveen Vadlani

                Article
                10.4061/2011/787532
                3112529
                21687609
                Copyright © 2011 Gary Brodeur et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Biochemistry

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