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      Activated T cells regulate bone loss and joint destruction in adjuvant arthritis through osteoprotegerin ligand.

      Nature

      Animals, Arthritis, Experimental, immunology, pathology, Bone Resorption, Bone and Bones, Carrier Proteins, physiology, Cartilage, Cells, Cultured, Coculture Techniques, Glycoproteins, Humans, Lymphocyte Activation, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Osteoprotegerin, RANK Ligand, Rats, Rats, Inbred Lew, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B, Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear, Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, T-Lymphocytes

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          Abstract

          Bone remodelling and bone loss are controlled by a balance between the tumour necrosis factor family molecule osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). In addition, OPGL regulates lymph node organogenesis, lymphocyte development and interactions between T cells and dendritic cells in the immune system. The OPGL receptor, RANK, is expressed on chondrocytes, osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts. OPGL expression in T cells is induced by antigen receptor engagement, which suggests that activated T cells may influence bone metabolism through OPGL and RANK. Here we report that activated T cells can directly trigger osteoclastogenesis through OPGL. Systemic activation of T cells in vivo leads to an OPGL-mediated increase in osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. In a T-cell-dependent model of rat adjuvant arthritis characterized by severe joint inflammation, bone and cartilage destruction and crippling, blocking of OPGL through osteoprotegerin treatment at the onset of disease prevents bone and cartilage destruction but not inflammation. These results show that both systemic and local T-cell activation can lead to OPGL production and subsequent bone loss, and they provide a novel paradigm for T cells as regulators of bone physiology.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteoprotegerin ligand.

          A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically to RANK expressed by transfected cell lines and purified osteoclast progenitors. Transgenic mice expressing a soluble RANK-Fc fusion protein have severe osteopetrosis because of a reduction in osteoclasts, similar to OPG transgenic mice. Recombinant RANK-Fc binds with high affinity to OPGL in vitro and blocks osteoclast differentiation and activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, polyclonal Ab against the RANK extracellular domain promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures suggesting that RANK activation mediates the effects of OPGL on the osteoclast pathway. These data indicate that OPGL-induced osteoclastogenesis is directly mediated through RANK on osteoclast precursor cells.
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            TRANCE (Tumor Necrosis Factor [TNF]-related Activation-induced Cytokine), a New TNF Family Member Predominantly Expressed in T cells, Is a Dendritic Cell–specific Survival Factor

            TRANCE (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]–related activation-induced cytokine) is a new member of the TNF family that is induced upon T cell receptor engagement and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) after interaction with its putative receptor (TRANCE-R). In addition, TRANCE expression is restricted to lymphoid organs and T cells. Here, we show that high levels of TRANCE-R are detected on mature dendritic cells (DCs) but not on freshly isolated B cells, T cells, or macrophages. Signaling by TRANCE-R appears to be dependent on TNF receptor–associated factor 2 (TRAF2), since JNK induction is impaired in cells from transgenic mice overexpressing a dominant negative TRAF2 protein. TRANCE inhibits apoptosis of mouse bone marrow–derived DCs and human monocyte-derived DCs in vitro. The resulting increase in DC survival is accompanied by a proportional increase in DC-mediated T cell proliferation in a mixed leukocyte reaction. TRANCE upregulates Bcl-xL expression, suggesting a potential mechanism for enhanced DC survival. TRANCE does not induce the proliferation of or increase the survival of T or B cells. Therefore, TRANCE is a new DC-restricted survival factor that mediates T cell–DC communication and may provide a tool to selectively enhance DC activity.
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              TRANCE Is a Novel Ligand of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family That Activates c-Jun N-terminal Kinase in T Cells

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10580503
                10.1038/46303

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