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      In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Ether Lipid Edelfosine against Leishmania spp. and SbV-Resistant Parasites

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          Abstract

          Background

          The leishmaniases are a complex of neglected tropical diseases caused by more than 20 Leishmania parasite species, for which available therapeutic arsenal is scarce and unsatisfactory. Pentavalent antimonials (SbV) are currently the first-line pharmacologic therapy for leishmaniasis worldwide, but resistance to these compounds is increasingly reported. Alkyl-lysophospoholipid analogs (ALPs) constitute a family of compounds with antileishmanial activity, and one of its members, miltefosine, has been approved as the first oral treatment for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, its clinical use can be challenged by less impressive efficiency in patients infected with some Leishmania species, including L. braziliensis and L. mexicana, and by proneness to develop drug resistance in vitro.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          We found that ALPs ranked edelfosine>perifosine>miltefosine>erucylphosphocholine for their antileishmanial activity and capacity to promote apoptosis-like parasitic cell death in promastigote and amastigote forms of distinct Leishmania spp., as assessed by proliferation and flow cytometry assays. Effective antileishmanial ALP concentrations were dependent on both the parasite species and their development stage. Edelfosine accumulated in and killed intracellular Leishmania parasites within macrophages. In vivo antileishmanial activity was demonstrated following oral treatment with edelfosine of mice and hamsters infected with L. major, L. panamensis or L. braziliensis, without any significant side-effect. Edelfosine also killed SbV-resistant Leishmania parasites in in vitro and in vivo assays, and required longer incubation times than miltefosine to generate drug resistance.

          Conclusions/Significance

          Our data reveal that edelfosine is the most potent ALP in killing different Leishmania spp., and it is less prone to lead to drug resistance development than miltefosine. Edelfosine is effective in killing Leishmania in culture and within macrophages, as well as in animal models infected with different Leishmania spp. and SbV-resistant parasites. Our results indicate that edelfosine is a promising orally administered antileishmanial drug for clinical evaluation.

          Author Summary

          Leishmaniasis represents a major international health problem, has a high morbidity and mortality rate, and is classified as an emerging and uncontrolled disease by the World Health Organization. The migration of population from endemic to nonendemic areas, and tourist activities in endemic regions are spreading the disease to new areas. Unfortunately, treatment of leishmaniasis is far from satisfactory, with only a few drugs available that show significant side-effects. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for the antileishmanial activity of the ether phospholipid edelfosine, being effective against a wide number of Leishmania spp. causing cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Our experimental mouse and hamster models demonstrated not only a significant antileishmanial activity of edelfosine oral administration against different wild-type Leishmania spp., but also against parasites resistant to pentavalent antimonials, which constitute the first line of treatment worldwide. In addition, edelfosine exerted a higher antileishmanial activity and a lower proneness to generate drug resistance than miltefosine, the first drug against leishmaniasis that can be administered orally. These data, together with our previous findings, showing an anti-inflammatory action and a very low toxicity profile, suggest that edelfosine is a promising orally administered drug for leishmaniasis, thus warranting clinical evaluation.

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          Most cited references 84

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          The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years.

          To date, most Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases reported to WHO come from Southern Europe. Up to the year 2001, nearly 2,000 cases of coinfection were identified, of which 90% were from Spain, Italy, France, and Portugal. However, these figures are misleading because they do not account for the large proportion of cases in many African and Asian countries that are missed due to a lack of diagnostic facilities and poor reporting systems. Most cases of coinfection in the Americas are reported in Brazil, where the incidence of leishmaniasis has spread in recent years due to overlap with major areas of HIV transmission. In some areas of Africa, the number of coinfection cases has increased dramatically due to social phenomena such as mass migration and wars. In northwest Ethiopia, up to 30% of all visceral leishmaniasis patients are also infected with HIV. In Asia, coinfections are increasingly being reported in India, which also has the highest global burden of leishmaniasis and a high rate of resistance to antimonial drugs. Based on the previous experience of 20 years of coinfection in Europe, this review focuses on the management of Leishmania-HIV-coinfected patients in low-income countries where leishmaniasis is endemic.
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            Oral miltefosine for Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

            There are 500,000 cases per year of visceral leishmaniasis, which occurs primarily in the Indian subcontinent. Almost all untreated patients die, and all the effective agents have been parenteral. Miltefosine is an oral agent that has been shown in small numbers of patients to have a favorable therapeutic index for Indian visceral leishmaniasis. We performed a clinical trial in India comparing miltefosine with the most effective standard treatment, amphotericin B. The study was a randomized, open-label comparison, in which 299 patients 12 years of age or older received orally administered miltefosine (50 or 100 mg [approximately 2.5 mg per kilogram of body weight] daily for 28 days) and 99 patients received intravenously administered amphotericin B (1 mg per kilogram every other day for a total of 15 injections). The groups were well matched in terms of age, weight, proportion with previous failure of treatment for leishmaniasis, parasitologic grade of splenic aspirate, and splenomegaly. At the end of treatment, splenic aspirates were obtained from 293 patients in the miltefosine group and 98 patients in the amphotericin B group. No parasites were identified, for an initial cure rate of 100 percent. By six months after the completion of treatment, 282 of the 299 patients in the miltefosine group (94 percent [95 percent confidence interval, 91 to 97]) and 96 of the 99 patients in the amphotericin B group (97 percent) had not had a relapse; these patients were classified as cured. Vomiting and diarrhea, generally lasting one to two days, occurred in 38 percent and 20 percent of the patients in the miltefosine group, respectively. Oral miltefosine is an effective and safe treatment for Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Miltefosine may be particularly advantageous because it can be administered orally. It may also be helpful in regions where parasites are resistant to current agents. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

              Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                PLoS Negl Trop Dis
                plos
                plosntds
                PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1935-2727
                1935-2735
                April 2012
                10 April 2012
                : 6
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, CSIC-Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Salamanca, Spain
                [2 ]APOINTECH, Centro Hispano-Luso de Investigaciones Agrarias, Parque Científico de la Universidad de Salamanca, Villamayor, Salamanca, Spain
                [3 ]Laboratorio de Inmunología Parasitaria y Molecular, CIETUS, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, Salamanca, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, Section of Immunology, St. Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
                [5 ]Department of Cellular Immunology, Max-Planck-Institut für Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany
                [6 ]Programa de Estudio y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
                New York University School of Medicine, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: FM REV JAV-P. Performed the experiments: REV JAV-P EY IM DLM JL-A. Analyzed the data: REV JAV-P IM MM SMR CEM JL-A AM IDV FM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: IM IDV FM. Wrote the paper: FM REV JAV-P.

                Article
                PNTD-D-11-01136
                10.1371/journal.pntd.0001612
                3323514
                22506086
                Varela-M et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Chemistry
                Medicinal Chemistry
                Medicine
                Infectious Diseases

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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