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      Skeletal and cardiovascular consequences of a positive calcium balance during hemodialysis Translated title: Consequências esqueléticas e cardiovasculares de um balanço positivo de cálcio durante a hemodiálise

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          Abstract Patients on hemodialysis are exposed to calcium via the dialysate at least three times a week. Changes in serum calcium vary according to calcium mass transfer during dialysis, which is dependent on the gradient between serum and dialysate calcium concentration (d[Ca]) and the skeleton turnover status that alters the ability of bone to incorporate calcium. Although underappreciated, the d[Ca] can potentially cause positive calcium balance that leads to systemic organ damage, including associations with mortality, myocardial dysfunction, hemodynamic tolerability, vascular calcification, and arrhythmias. The pathophysiology of these adverse effects includes serum calcium changes, parathyroid hormone suppression, and vascular calcification through indirect and direct effects. Some organs are more susceptible to alterations in calcium homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the existing data and potential mechanisms linking the d[Ca] to calcium balance with consequent dysfunction of the skeleton, myocardium, and arteries.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Pacientes em hemodiálise são expostos ao cálcio, por meio do dialisato, pelo menos três vezes por semana. As alterações no cálcio sérico variam de acordo com a transferência de massa de cálcio durante a diálise, que é dependente do gradiente entre a concentração de cálcio no plasma e no dialisato (d [Ca]) e o estado de renovação do esqueleto que altera a capacidade do osso de incorporar cálcio. Embora subestimado, o d [Ca] pode potencialmente causar balanço positivo de cálcio que leva a danos em órgãos sistêmicos, incluindo associações com mortalidade, disfunção miocárdica, tolerabilidade hemodinâmica, calcificação vascular e arritmias. A fisiopatologia desses efeitos adversos inclui alterações do cálcio sérico, supressão do hormônio da paratireóide e calcificação vascular por meio de efeitos diretos e indiretos. Alguns órgãos são mais suscetíveis a alterações na homeostase do cálcio. Nesta revisão, discutimos os dados existentes e os mecanismos potenciais que ligam o d [Ca] ao equilíbrio do cálcio com a consequente disfunção no esqueleto, miocárdio e artérias.

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          Fibroblast growth factor 23 and risks of mortality and end-stage renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

          A high level of the phosphate-regulating hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is associated with mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease, but little is known about its relationship with adverse outcomes in the much larger population of patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. To evaluate FGF-23 as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. A prospective study of 3879 participants with chronic kidney disease stages 2 through 4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort between June 2003 and September 2008. All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease. At study enrollment, the mean (SD) estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 42.8 (13.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and the median FGF-23 level was 145.5 RU/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 96-239 reference unit [RU]/mL). During a median follow-up of 3.5 years (IQR, 2.5-4.4 years), 266 participants died (20.3/1000 person-years) and 410 reached end-stage renal disease (33.0/1000 person-years). In adjusted analyses, higher levels of FGF-23 were independently associated with a greater risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], per SD of natural log-transformed FGF-23, 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.7). Mortality risk increased by quartile of FGF-23: the HR was 1.3 (95% CI, 0.8-2.2) for the second quartile, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.2-3.3) for the third quartile, and 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.1) for the fourth quartile. Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 was independently associated with significantly higher risk of end-stage renal disease among participants with an estimated GFR between 30 and 44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 1.3 per SD of FGF-23 natural log-transformed FGF-23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.6) and 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or higher (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4), but not less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Elevated FGF-23 is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease in patients with relatively preserved kidney function and for mortality across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease.
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            Human vascular smooth muscle cells undergo vesicle-mediated calcification in response to changes in extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations: a potential mechanism for accelerated vascular calcification in ESRD.

            Patients with ESRD have a high circulating calcium (Ca) x phosphate (P) product and develop extensive vascular calcification that may contribute to their high cardiovascular morbidity. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification in this context are poorly understood. In an in vitro model, elevated Ca or P induced human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification independently and synergistically, a process that was potently inhibited by serum. Calcification was initiated by release from living VSMC of membrane-bound matrix vesicles (MV) and also by apoptotic bodies from dying cells. Vesicles released by VSMC after prolonged exposure to Ca and P contained preformed basic calcium phosphate and calcified extensively. However, vesicles released in the presence of serum did not contain basic calcium phosphate, co-purified with the mineralization inhibitor fetuin-A and calcified minimally. Importantly, MV released under normal physiologic conditions did not calcify, and VSMC were also able to inhibit the spontaneous precipitation of Ca and P in solution. The potent mineralization inhibitor matrix Gla protein was found to be present in MV, and pretreatment of VSMC with warfarin markedly enhanced vesicle calcification. These data suggest that in the context of raised Ca and P, vascular calcification is a modifiable, cell-mediated process regulated by vesicle release. These vesicles contain mineralization inhibitors derived from VSMC and serum, and perturbation of the production or function of these inhibitors would lead to accelerated vascular calcification.
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              Morphology of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in patients with end-stage renal failure.

              An excessive rate of cardiac death is a well-known feature of renal failure. Coronary heart disease is frequent and the possibility has been raised that the natural history of the coronary plaque is different in uraemic patients. We assessed the morphology of coronary arteries in patients with end-stage renal failure and compared them with coronary arteries of matched non-uraemic control patients. Fifty-four cases were identified at autopsy who met the inclusion criteria: cases, end-stage renal disease (n=27); controls, non-renal patients with coronary artery disease (n=27). At autopsy all three coronary arteries were prepared at corresponding sites for investigations: (i) qualitative analysis (after Stary), (ii) quantitative measurements of intima and media thickness (by planimetry), (iii) immunohistochemical analysis of the coronary plaques and (iv) X-ray diffraction of selected calcified plaques. Qualitative analysis of the coronary arteries showed significantly more calcified plaques of coronary arteries in patients with end-stage renal failure. Plaques of non-uraemic patients were mostly fibroatheromatous. Media thickness of coronary arteries was significantly higher in uraemic patients (187+/-53 microm vs 135+/-29 microm in controls) and intima thickness tended to be higher (158+/-38 microm vs 142+/-31 microm) but this difference was not statistically significant. Plaque area (4.09+/-1. 50 mm(2) vs 4.39+/-0.88 mm(2)) was comparable in both groups. Lumen area, however, was significantly lower in end-stage renal patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of the cellular infiltrate in coronary arteries showed no major differences in these advanced plaques of uraemic and non-uraemic subjects. Coronary plaques in patients with end-stage renal failure are characterized by increased media thickness and marked calcification. In contrast to the previous opinion the most marked difference compared to non-uraemic controls does not concern the size, but the composition of the plaque. Deposition of calcium within the plaques may contribute to the high complication rate in uraemic patients.

                Author and article information

                Brazilian Journal of Nephrology
                Braz. J. Nephrol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                Indianapolis Indiana orgnameIndiana University School of Medicine orgdiv1Department of Medicine orgdiv2Division of Nephrology USA
                Indianapolis Indiana orgnameRoudebush Veterans Administration Medical Center USA
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Nove de Julho Brazil
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Hospital das Clínicas orgdiv2Departamento de Medicina Brazil
                38201 S0101-28002020005038201 S0101-2800(20)00000038201

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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