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      Dexmedetomidine protects PC12 cells from lidocaine-induced cytotoxicity via downregulation of Stathmin 1

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          Background: Understanding of lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity is not complete, resulting in the unsuccessful treatment in some clinical settings. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been shown to alleviate lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity in our previous cell model. However, the rationale for DEX combined with lidocaine to reduce lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity in the clinical setting remains to be further clarified in the detailed molecular mechanism.

          Methods: In this study, we established a cellular injury model by lidocaine preconditioning. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2ʹ-deoxyuridine (EdU) proliferation assay kit were used to analyze cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining. Cell cycle progression was detected by flow cytometry. The protein expression levels were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining.

          Results: Our results showed that DEX dose-dependently restored impaired proliferation of PC12 cells induced by lidocaine,as reflected by the increased cell viability and EdU positive cells, which were consistent with the decreased expression of tumor suppressor protein p21 and increased expression of cell cycle-related cyclin D1 and CDK1. In addition, DEX dose-dependently reduced apoptotic PC12 cells induced by lidocaine,as reflected by the decreased expression of apoptosis-related Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and increased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 compared to the cells only treated with lidocaine. Mechanistically, with gain-or-loss-of-function of STMN1, we showed that DEX-mediated neuroprotection by lidocaine-induced damage is associated with downregulation of STMN1 which might be an upstream molecule involved in regulation of mitochondria death pathway.

          Conclusion: Our results reveal that DEX is likely to be an effective adjunct to alleviate chronic neurotoxicity induced by lidocaine.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists: a review of current clinical applications.

          The α-2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been used for decades to treat common medical conditions such as hypertension; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; various pain and panic disorders; symptoms of opioid, benzodiazepine, and alcohol withdrawal; and cigarette craving. (1) However, in more recent years, these drugs have been used as adjuncts for sedation and to reduce anesthetic requirements. This review will provide an historical perspective of this drug class, an understanding of pharmacological mechanisms, and an insight into current applications in clinical anesthesiology.
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            Pharmaceutical screen identifies novel target processes for activation of autophagy with a broad translational potential

            Autophagy is a conserved homeostatic process active in all human cells and affecting a spectrum of diseases. Here we use a pharmaceutical screen to discover new mechanisms for activation of autophagy. We identify a subset of pharmaceuticals inducing autophagic flux with effects in diverse cellular systems modelling specific stages of several human diseases such as HIV transmission and hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation in Alzheimer's disease. One drug, flubendazole, is a potent inducer of autophagy initiation and flux by affecting acetylated and dynamic microtubules in a reciprocal way. Disruption of dynamic microtubules by flubendazole results in mTOR deactivation and dissociation from lysosomes leading to TFEB (transcription factor EB) nuclear translocation and activation of autophagy. By inducing microtubule acetylation, flubendazole activates JNK1 leading to Bcl-2 phosphorylation, causing release of Beclin1 from Bcl-2-Beclin1 complexes for autophagy induction, thus uncovering a new approach to inducing autophagic flux that may be applicable in disease treatment.
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              Stathmin 1: a novel therapeutic target for anticancer activity.

              Stathmin 1 (STMN1), also known as p17, p18, p19, 19K, metablastin, oncoprotein 18, LAP 18 and Op18, is a 19 kDa cytosolic protein. It was the first discovered member of a family of phylogenetically related microtubule-destabilizing phosphoproteins critically involved in the construction and function of the mitotic spindle. A threshold level of STMN1 is required for orderly progression through mitosis in a variety of cell types. STMN1 is overexpressed across a broad range of human malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, neuroblastoma; ovarian, prostatic, breast and lung cancers and mesothelioma). It is also upregulated in normally proliferating cell lines but is only rarely upregulated in nonproliferating cell lines with the exception of neurons, anterior pituitary cells and glial cells. Its expression is also upregulated in hepatocytes during regeneration and in lymphoid cells when they are signaled to proliferate. In this review, we summarize available data as rationale for the therapeutic manipulation of STMN1 in cancer patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                03 July 2019
                : 13
                : 2067-2079
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong 510623, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Hematology, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong 510623, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yonghong TanDepartment of Anesthesiology, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University , No. 9 Jinsui Rd, Guangzhou, Guangdong510623, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 380 888 0921Email yonghongtandoctor@ 123456yeah.net

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Tan et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 38, Pages: 13
                Original Research


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