Convergent evolution of hypercarnivorous adaptations in canids has occurred a number of times in the last 40 m.y. among distantly related taxa. The adaptations include an increase in carnassial blade length, reduction or loss of post-carnassial molars, and transformation of the talonid of the lower first molar from a basinlike depression into a trenchant, bladelike cusp. Although the diversity of these specialized canids is typically low in past and present communities, it was unusually high during the Late Oligocene of North America and the Pleistocene of South America. These two comparable events provide an opportunity for exploring possible causes of the evolution of hypercarnivory in canids. Plots of generic diversity against time for North American predators reveal a roughly inverse relationship between the number of hypercarnivorous canid taxa and the numbers of other hypercarnivores, such as creodonts, nimravids, mustelids, and amphicyonids. Similarly, the radiation of hypercarnivorous canids in South America occurred at a time of relatively low diversity of other hypercarnivores. Analysis of trophic diversity within the North American carnivore paleoguild before, during, and after the Late Oligocene reveals considerable taxonomic turnover among carnivores because of immigration and speciation. Late Oligocene hypercarnivorous canids appear to have been replaced first by amphicyonids and large mustelids, and then by felids.