0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Differential Effects of Neuropeptides on Cytokine Production by Mouse Helper T Cell Subsets

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Though immune outcome is known to be determined by which helper T cell response predominates, no local mechanism has yet been established which can explain how the neuronal system may control this. It is possible that the nervous system releases neuropeptides at specific local sites of infection or challenge, which triggers lymphocytes at those points to release specific cytokine profiles. These may then influence the direction of the Th1/Th2 response and therefore immune outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and if so how neuropeptides influence cytokine production by lymphocytes, especially T cells. We investigated the effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) by stimulating nonadherent splenocytes and helper T cell clones with antigens in vitro in the presence or absence of these peptides. NPY greatly enhanced IL-4 production and inhibited IFN-γ. CGRP inhibited IFN-γ production markedly in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effects on IL-4 production. SP and VIP had no effects on IFN-γ production, but SP enhanced and VIP suppressed IL-4 production slightly but consistently. Therefore neuropeptides can influence cytokine production. This opens the door to speculations that these specific cytokine profiles might play a part in influencing the direction of the consequent Th1/Th2 cascade and immune outcome and possibly the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 7

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Regulation of Langerhans cell function by nerves containing calcitonin gene-related peptide.

          Several observations suggest interactions between the immune and nervous systems. Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis may worsen with anxiety and have been associated with anomalous neuropeptide regulation. Neurotransmitters affect lymphocyte function and lymphoid organs are innervated. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide and vasodilator that modulates some macrophage functions, including antigen presentation in vitro. CGRP is associated with Langerhans cells (LC) in oesophageal mucosa, particularly during inflammation, is present in epidermal nerves and is associated with Merkel cells. We examined the ability of CGRP to modulate LC antigen-presenting function and asked if CGRP-containing nerves impinge on LC. We report here that CGRP-containing nerve fibres are intimately associated with LC in human epidermis and CGRP is found at the surface of some LC. In three functional assays CGRP inhibited LC antigen presentation. These findings indicate that CGRP may have immunomodulatory effects in vivo and suggest a locus of interaction between the nervous system and immunological function.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Regulation of murine lymphokine production in vivo. III. The lymphoid tissue microenvironment exerts regulatory influences over T helper cell function

            We investigated the capacity of murine T lymphocytes, isolated from various lymphoid organs of normal or antigen-primed donors, to produce IL-2 or IL-4 after activation with anti-CD3 or specific antigen. Our results established that T cells resident within lymphoid organs being drained by nonmucosal tissue sites (e.g., axillary, inguinal, brachial lymph nodes, or spleen) produced IL-2 as the predominant T cell growth factor (TCGF) after activation. Conversely, activated T cells from lymphoid organs being drained by mucosal tissues (Peyer's patches, and cervical, periaortic, and parathymic lymph nodes) produced IL-4 as the major species of TCGF. Analysis of the lymphoid tissues obtained from adoptive recipients of antigen-primed lymphocytes provided by syngeneic donors provided evidence that direct influences were being exerted on T cells during their residence within defined lymphoid compartments. These lymphoid tissue influences appeared to be responsible for altering the potential of resident T cells to produce distinct species of TCGF. Steroid hormones, known transcriptional enhancers and repressors of specific cellular genes, were implicated in the controlling mechanisms over TCGF production. Glucocorticoids (GCs) were found to exert a systemic effect on all recirculating T cells, evidenced by a marked dominance in IL-4 production by T cells obtained from all lymphoid organs of GC-treated mice, or after a direct exposure of normal lymphoid cells to GCs in vitro before cellular activation with T cell mitogens. Further, the androgen steroid DHEA appeared to be responsible for providing an epigenetic influence to T cells trafficking through peripheral lymphoid organs. This steroid influence resulted in an enhanced potential for IL-2 secretion after activation. Anatomic compartmentalization of the DHEA-facilitated influence appears to be mediated by differential levels of DHEA-sulfatase in lymphoid tissues. DHEA-sulfatase is an enzyme capable of converting DHEA-sulfate (inactive) to the active hormone DHEA. We find very high activities of this enzyme isolated in murine macrophages. The implications of our findings to immunobiology are very great, and indicate that T cells, while clonally restricted for antigen peptide recognition, also appear to exhibit an extreme flexibility with regards to the species of lymphokines they produce after activation. Regulation of this highly conservative mechanism appears to be partially, if not exclusively, controlled by cellular influences being exerted by distinct species of steroid hormones, supplied in an endocrine or a paracrine manner where they mediate either systemic or tissue-localized influences, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Separation of mouse spleen cells by passage through columns of sephadex G-10.

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                1998
                April 1998
                10 July 1998
                : 5
                : 1-2
                : 9-15
                Affiliations
                a Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, NCNP, Tokyo and b Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health, NCNP, Chiba, Japan
                Article
                26321 Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5:9–15
                10.1159/000026321
                9698253
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Comments

                Comment on this article