The pantropical genus Rourea Aubl. ( Connaraceae ) is composed of ca. 70 species, most of which occur in the Neotropics. Rourea is currently subdivided into three subgenera, with the American taxa included in Rourea subgen. Rourea . Forero (1976) recognised six sections for the species of the New World, with Rourea subgen. R. sect. Multifoliolatae being exclusive to Brazil, characterised by multifoliolate leaves, relatively small leaflets and the staminal tube (0.8–)1–1.5 mm long. Following Forero’s (1976) treatment, additional botanical collections have become available in Brazilian herbaria, allowing re-evaluation of species concepts. This work recognises and revises 12 species in this section, mainly restricted to southeastern Brazil and southern Bahia. A nomenclatural and taxonomic study of these species is here presented, including an identification key, morphological descriptions, illustrations and geographic distribution maps. A new species is also described.