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      SGLT2 Inhibitors in Combination Therapy: From Mechanisms to Clinical Considerations in Type 2 Diabetes Management

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          Effects of Once-Weekly Exenatide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The cardiovascular effects of adding once-weekly treatment with exenatide to usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes are unknown.
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            Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future.

            Glucose metabolism is normally regulated by a feedback loop including islet β cells and insulin-sensitive tissues, in which tissue sensitivity to insulin affects magnitude of β-cell response. If insulin resistance is present, β cells maintain normal glucose tolerance by increasing insulin output. Only when β cells cannot release sufficient insulin in the presence of insulin resistance do glucose concentrations rise. Although β-cell dysfunction has a clear genetic component, environmental changes play an essential part. Modern research approaches have helped to establish the important role that hexoses, aminoacids, and fatty acids have in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, and the potential role of changes in the microbiome. Several new approaches for treatment have been developed, but more effective therapies to slow progressive loss of β-cell function are needed. Recent findings from clinical trials provide important information about methods to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes and some of the adverse effects of these interventions. However, additional long-term studies of drugs and bariatric surgery are needed to identify new ways to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce the harmful effects of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Thiazolidinediones

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Dia Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                July 20 2018
                August 2018
                July 20 2018
                August 2018
                : 41
                : 8
                : 1543-1556
                Article
                10.2337/dc18-0588
                © 2018

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