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      Fruit and vegetable waste management: Conventional and emerging approaches

      , , , ,
      Journal of Environmental Management
      Elsevier BV

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          Biological degradation of plastics: a comprehensive review.

          Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Awareness of the waste problem and its impact on the environment has awakened new interest in the area of degradable polymers. The interest in environmental issues is growing and there are increasing demands to develop material which do not burden the environment significantly. Biodegradation is necessary for water-soluble or water-immiscible polymers because they eventually enter streams which can neither be recycled nor incinerated. It is important to consider the microbial degradation of natural and synthetic polymers in order to understand what is necessary for biodegradation and the mechanisms involved. This requires understanding of the interactions between materials and microorganisms and the biochemical changes involved. Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. This paper reviews the current research on the biodegradation of biodegradable and also the conventional synthetic plastics and also use of various techniques for the analysis of degradation in vitro.
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            Physical and mechanical properties of PLA, and their functions in widespread applications - A comprehensive review.

            Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), so far, is the most extensively researched and utilized biodegradable aliphatic polyester in human history. Due to its merits, PLA is a leading biomaterial for numerous applications in medicine as well as in industry replacing conventional petrochemical-based polymers. The main purpose of this review is to elaborate the mechanical and physical properties that affect its stability, processability, degradation, PLA-other polymers immiscibility, aging and recyclability, and therefore its potential suitability to fulfill specific application requirements. This review also summarizes variations in these properties during PLA processing (i.e. thermal degradation and recyclability), biodegradation, packaging and sterilization, and aging (i.e. weathering and hygrothermal). In addition, we discuss up-to-date strategies for PLA properties improvements including components and plasticizer blending, nucleation agent addition, and PLA modifications and nanoformulations. Incorporating better understanding of the role of these properties with available improvement strategies is the key for successful utilization of PLA and its copolymers/composites/blends to maximize their fit with worldwide application needs.
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              Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices

              Polymer scientists, working closely with those in the device and medical fields, have made tremendous advances over the past 30 years in the use of synthetic materials in the body. In this article we will focus on properties of biodegradable polymers which make them ideally suited for orthopedic applications where a permanent implant is not desired. The materials with the greatest history of use are the poly(lactides) and poly(glycolides), and these will be covered in specific detail. The chemistry of the polymers, including synthesis and degradation, the tailoring of properties by proper synthetic controls such as copolymer composition, special requirements for processing and handling, and mechanisms of biodegradation will be covered. An overview of biocompatibility and approved devices of particular interest in orthopedics are also covered.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Environmental Management
                Journal of Environmental Management
                Elsevier BV
                03014797
                July 2020
                July 2020
                : 265
                : 110510
                Article
                10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110510
                32275240
                87621f22-d3b0-47d5-b114-522186301ef0
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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