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      Effect of Energy Drinks on Discoloration of Silorane and Dimethacrylate-Based Composite Resins

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          This study aimed to assess the effects of two energy drinks on color change (ΔE) of two methacrylate-based and a silorane-based composite resin after one week and one month.

          Materials and Methods:

          Thirty cubic samples were fabricated from Filtek P90, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT composite resins. All the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Baseline color values (L*a*b*) of each specimen were measured using a spectrophotometer according to the CIEL*a*b* color system. Ten randomly selected specimens from each composite were then immersed in the two energy drinks (Hype, Red Bull) and artificial saliva (control) for one week and one month. Color was re-assessed after each storage period and ΔE values were calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests.


          Filtek Z250 composite showed the highest ΔE irrespective of the solutions at both time points. After seven days and one month, the lowest ΔE values were observed in Filtek Z350XT and Filtek P90 composites immersed in artificial saliva, respectively. The ΔE values of Filtek Z250 and Z350XT composites induced by Red Bull and Hype energy drinks were not significantly different. Discoloration of Filtek P90 was higher in Red Bull energy drink at both time points.


          Prolonged immersion time in all three solutions increased ΔE values of all composites. However, the ΔE values were within the clinically acceptable range (<3.3) at both time points.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Siloranes in dental composites.

          The purpose of this study was to compare the product profile of a Silorane based composite which polymerizes by a cationic ring opening process with the product profile of different methacrylate based restoratives. Four methacrylate based materials Filtek Z250, Filtek P60,Tetric ceram, Spectrum TPH and a Silorane based material were investigated with regard to their compressive strength, flexural strength, E-Modulus and ambient light stability. The data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and 2 sample t test (p 10 min for Silorane was higher than the ambient light reactivity of the other tested methacrylates (55-90 s). The ring opening chemistry of the Siloranes enables at the first time shrinkage values lower than 1 vol% and mechanical parameters as E-Modulus and flexural strength comparable to those of clinically well accepted methacrylate based composites.
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            Influence of food-simulating solutions and surface finish on susceptibility to staining of aesthetic restorative materials.

            To determine the degree of surface staining of resin-based composites (RBCs) and glass-ionomer cements (GICs) after immersion in various stains and food-simulating solutions (FSS). Six tooth-coloured restorative materials were used: a light-cured microfilled RBC (Durafil, Kulzer), a light-cured microglass RBC (Charisma, Kulzer), a polyacid-modified RBC (F2000, 3M/ESPE), a conventional GIC (Fuji IX, GC) and two resin-modified GICs (Fuji II LC, GC; Photac Fil, 3M/ESPE). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and tested with either a matrix finish or polished using wet silicon carbide papers up to 2000 grit. All specimens were immersed in 37 degrees C distilled water for 1 week, followed by three different FSS (water, 10% ethanol, Crodamol GTCC) and five stains (red wine, coffee, tea, soy sauce and cola) for a further 2 weeks. Three specimens of each material for each stain were tested. Colour coefficients (CIE L* a* b*) were measured by a spectrophotometer after each treatment. The change in colour (DeltaEn) was calculated using the formula: DeltaEn=[(DeltaLn+(Deltaa(n))2+(Deltab(n))2]1/2. Distilled water caused no perceptible colour change as tested by ANOVA and Tukey's tests. The effect of surface finish on staining was not statistically significant (P>0.05). There was no strong interaction between FSS and stains or between FSS and materials. There was a strong interaction between surface and material, and stain and material (P<0.001). All materials were susceptible to staining by all stains especially coffee, red wine and tea; Fuji IX showed the least susceptibility and F2000 the greatest.
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              The effect of surface finishing and storage solutions on the color stability of resin-based composites.

              The authors tested the hypothesis that surface-finishing treatments and the type of storage solutions significantly affected the staining of resin-based composites, or RBCs, and unfilled resins, or URs. Fifty-four RBC and 54 UR disks were polymerized through a polyester film strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del.) and polished in one of three groups: 1-micrometer aluminum oxide, 15-microm diamond plate and no treatment (polyester film). All specimens were immersed in water for two days and then in coffee, cola or red wine for seven more days at 37 C. The authors recorded tristimulus color measurements before the immersions; after one and two days in water; and after one, two, three and seven days in the storage solutions. Most of the color changes occurred between day 2 in water and day 7 in the staining solution. Analysis of variance showed that the finishing treatment and storage solution significantly influenced the overall color change (deltaE), and interactions occurred between the finishing treatment and the storage solution (P < .0001) for both materials. RBC specimens generally exhibited greater color changes than did UR specimens. The polyester film finishing exhibited the greatest amount of color change, while the diamond finishing exhibited the least amount of color change. Immersion in wine caused the greatest color change for both materials; cola and coffee resulted in the smallest color change for RBC and UR specimens, respectively. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the surface staining of RBC materials. Polyester film finishing and red wine produced the greatest color change after seven days for RBC specimens. Clinicians should remove the polyester film-finished surface and advise patients that drinking wine could intensify surface staining on RBC restorations.

                Author and article information

                [1 ] Assistant Professor, Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Restorative and Esthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
                [2 ] Dental Student, Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
                [3 ] Assistant Professor, Department of Social Medicine and Health, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Z. Ahangari, Dental Student, Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran, s.ahangari69@
                J Dent (Tehran)
                J Dent (Tehran)
                Journal of Dentistry (Tehran, Iran)
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences
                August 2016
                : 13
                : 4
                : 261-270
                Copyright© Dental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

                Original Article


                color, composite resins, energy drinks, silorane composite resin, spectrophotometry


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