Adiponectin is a fat-derived hormone whose reduction plays central roles in obesity-linked diseases including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. The cloning of Adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 has stimulated adiponectin research, revealing pivotal roles for AdipoRs in pleiotropic adiponectin actions, as well as some postreceptor signaling mechanisms. Adiponectin signaling has thus become one of the major research fields in metabolism and clinical medicine. Studies on AdipoRs will further our understanding of the role of adiponectin in obesity-linked diseases and shortened life span and may guide the design of antidiabetic and antiaging drugs with AdipoR as a target. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.