Blog
About

1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by nocturnal violence, increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep and the lack of any other neurological disease. However, idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder can precede parkinsonism and dementia by several years. Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and neuromelanin-sensitive sequences, we previously found that the signal intensity was reduced in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus area of patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Here, we studied the integrity of the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex with neuromelanin-sensitive imaging in 21 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and compared the results with those from 21 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent a clinical examination, motor, cognitive, autonomous, psychological, olfactory and colour vision tests, and rapid eye movement sleep characterization using video-polysomnography and 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. The patients more frequently had preclinical markers of alpha-synucleinopathies, including constipation, olfactory deficits, orthostatic hypotension, and subtle motor impairment. Using neuromelanin-sensitive imaging, reduced signal intensity was identified in the locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus complex of the patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour. The mean sensitivity of the visual analyses of the signal performed by neuroradiologists who were blind to the clinical diagnoses was 82.5%, and the specificity was 81% for the identification of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour. The results confirm that this complex is affected in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour (to the same degree as it is affected in Parkinson's disease). Neuromelanin-sensitive imaging provides an early marker of non-dopaminergic alpha-synucleinopathy that can be detected on an individual basis.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A putative flip-flop switch for control of REM sleep.

          Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep consists of a dreaming state in which there is activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG), rapid eye movements, and loss of muscle tone. Although REM sleep was discovered more than 50 years ago, the neuronal circuits responsible for switching between REM and non-REM (NREM) sleep remain poorly understood. Here we propose a brainstem flip-flop switch, consisting of mutually inhibitory REM-off and REM-on areas in the mesopontine tegmentum. Each side contains GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-ergic neurons that heavily innervate the other. The REM-on area also contains two populations of glutamatergic neurons. One set projects to the basal forebrain and regulates EEG components of REM sleep, whereas the other projects to the medulla and spinal cord and regulates atonia during REM sleep. The mutually inhibitory interactions of the REM-on and REM-off areas may form a flip-flop switch that sharpens state transitions and makes them vulnerable to sudden, unwanted transitions-for example, in narcolepsy.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Rapid-eye-movement sleep behaviour disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study.

            Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterised by dream-enacting behaviours related to unpleasant dreams and loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep. RBD may be idiopathic or associated with neurological disease. Available data suggest that in some cases RBD might be the initial manifestation of a neurodegenerative disease. We sought to determine the frequency and nature of neurological disorders developing in patients diagnosed with idiopathic RBD at our sleep centre. We retrospectively assessed 44 consecutive patients (39 men and five women with a mean age of 74 years), with at least 2 years of clinical follow-up after a diagnosis of idiopathic RBD, through a detailed clinical history, complete neurological examination, rating scales of parkinsonism, and neuropsychological tests. 20 (45%) patients developed a neurological disorder after a mean of 11.5 years from the reported onset of RBD and a mean follow-up of 5.1 years from the diagnosis of idiopathic RBD at our sleep centre. Emerging disorders were Parkinson's disease in nine patients, dementia with Lewy bodies in six, multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar syndrome in one, and mild cognitive impairment in four in whom visuospatial dysfunction was prominent. Patients with longer clinical follow-up developed a neurological disease (OR 1.512, 95% CI 1.105-2.069; p=0.010). Our study indicates that in people presenting to sleep centres, RBD often antedates the development of a neurodegenerative disorder. Close follow-up of patients with idiopathic RBD could enable early detection of neurodegenerative disease. This finding may be of great interest when early effective treatment strategies and neuroprotective drugs become available.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Delayed emergence of a parkinsonian disorder in 38% of 29 older men initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

              We report longitudinal data on a group of 29 male patients 50 years of age or older who were initially diagnosed as having idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) after extensive polysomnographic and neurologic evaluations. Thirty-eight percent (11/29) were eventually diagnosed as having a parkinsonian disorder (presumably Parkinson's disease) at a mean interval of 3.7 +/- 1.4 (SD) years after the diagnosis of RBD+, and at a mean interval of 12.7 +/- 7.3 years after the onset of RBD. To date, only 7% (2/29) of patients have developed any other neurologic disorder. At the time of RBD diagnosis, data from the RBD group with eventual Parkinson's disease (n = 11) and the current idiopathic RBD group (n = 16) were indistinguishable, with two exceptions: the RBD-Parkinson's disease group had a significantly elevated hourly index of periodic limb movements of non-REM sleep and an elevated REM sleep percentage. RBD was fully or substantially controlled with nightly clonazepam treatment in 89% (24/27) of patients in both groups. Thus, RBD can be the heralding manifestation of Parkinson's disease in a substantial subgroup of older male RBD patients. However, a number of presumed Parkinson's disease patients may eventually be diagnosed with multiple system atrophy (striatonigral degeneration subtype). Our findings indicate the importance of serial neurologic evaluations after RBD is diagnosed and implicate the pedunculopontine nucleus as a likely site of pathology in combined RBD-Parkinson's disease, based on experimental and theoretical considerations rather than on autopsy data.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Brain
                Brain
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0006-8950
                1460-2156
                March 24 2016
                April 26 2016
                : 139
                : 4
                : 1180-1188
                Article
                10.1093/brain/aww006
                26920675
                © 2016

                Comments

                Comment on this article