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      Holothuria ( Mertensiothuria) viridiaurantia sp. nov. (Holothuriida, Holothuriidae), a new sea cucumber from the Eastern Pacific Ocean revealed by morphology and DNA barcoding

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Holothuria ( Mertensiothuria) viridiaurantia sp. nov. is described based on specimens from rocky reefs of northern Chocó in the Colombian Pacific Ocean; however, it also occurs along the Eastern Pacific Ocean from Mexico and Panama. Although specimens from Mexico and Panama were previously identified as Holothuria ( Mertensiothuria) hilla Lesson, 1830 the new species is easily distinguished morphologically and via mtDNA. In terms of morphology, the species can be identified by its olive-green background and white-orange papillae and tentacles, larger tentacles with deep indentations and also by larger buttons on the dorsal and ventral body wall, papillae and tube feet; large, thick and rough tentacle rods, and the absence of ossicles in the longitudinal muscles. The new species is included in the subgenus Mertensiothuria considering molecular evidence.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Biology and geology of eastern Pacific coral reefs

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            Design of phylum-specific hybrid primers for DNA barcoding: addressing the need for efficient COI amplification in the Echinodermata.

            Recent research has shown the usefulness of the Folmer region of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) as a genetic barcode to assist in species delimitation of echinoderms. However, amplification of COI is often challenging in echinoderms (low success or pseudogenes). We present a method that allows the design of phylum-specific hybrid primers, and use this to develop COI primers for the Echinodermata. We aligned COI sequences from 310 echinoderm species and designed all possible primers along the consensus sequence with two methods (standard degenerate and hybrid). We found much lower degeneracy for hybrid primers (4-fold degeneracy) than for standard degenerate primers (≥48-fold degeneracy). We then designed the most conserved hybrid primers to amplify a >500-bp region within COI. These primers successfully amplified this gene region in all tested taxa (123 species across all echinoderm classes). Sequencing of 30 species among these confirmed both the quality of the sequences (>500 bp, no pseudogenes) and their utility as a DNA barcode. This method should be useful for developing primers for other mitochondrial genes and other phyla. The method will also be of interest for the development of future projects involving both community-based genetic assessments on macroorganisms and biodiversity assessment of environmental samples using high-throughput sequencing. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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              Molecular phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea (Echinodermata).

              Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are a morphologically diverse, ecologically important, and economically valued clade of echinoderms; however, the understanding of the overall systematics of the group remains controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea assessed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches using approximately 4.3kb of mt- (COI, 16S, 12S) and nDNA (H3, 18S, 28S) sequences from 82 holothuroid terminals representing 23 of the 27 widely-accepted family-ranked taxa. Currently five holothuroid taxa of ordinal rank are accepted. We find that three of the five orders are non-monophyletic, and we revise the taxonomy of the groups accordingly. Apodida is sister to the rest of Holothuroidea, here considered Actinopoda. Within Actinopoda, Elasipodida in part is sister to the remaining Actinopoda. This latter clade, comprising holothuroids with respiratory trees, is now called Pneumonophora. The traditional Aspidochirotida is paraphyletic, with representatives from three orders (Molpadida, Dendrochirotida, and Elasipodida in part) nested within. Therefore, we discontinue the use of Aspidochirotida and instead erect Holothuriida as the sister group to the remaining Pneumonophora, here termed Neoholothuriida. We found four well-supported major clades in Neoholothuriida: Dendrochirotida, Molpadida and two new clades, Synallactida and Persiculida. The mapping of traditionally-used morphological characters in holothuroid systematics onto the phylogeny revealed marked homoplasy in most characters demonstrating that further taxonomic revision of Holothuroidea is required. Two time-tree analyses, one based on calibrations for uncontroversial crown group dates for Eleutherozoa, Echinozoa and Holothuroidea and another using these calibrations plus four more from within Holothuroidea, showed major discrepancies, suggesting that fossils of Holothuroidea may need reassessment in terms of placing these forms with existing crown clades.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                02 December 2019
                : 893
                : 1-19
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras – INVEMAR, Museo de Historia Natural Marina de Colombia (MHNMC) - Makuriwa, Calle 25 No. 2–55, Playa Salguero, Rodadero, Santa Marta, Colombia Museo de Historia Natural Marina de Colombia Santa Marta Colombia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Giomar H. Borrero-Pérez ( giomar.borrero@ 123456invemar.org.co ; giomarborrero@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: A. Martynov

                Article
                36013
                10.3897/zookeys.893.36013
                6901621
                Giomar Helena Borrero-Pérez, María Juliana Vanegas-González

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Echinodermata
                Holothuriidae
                Holothuroidea
                Invertebrata
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Systematics
                Americas
                Oceans
                Pacific

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