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      Endothelin and Endothelin A/B Receptors Are Increased after Ischaemic Acute Renal Failure

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          Background/Aims: Endothelin (ET) has been implicated as an indirect mediator of injury following acute renal ischaemia (ARI). The purpose of this study was to localize and quantitate ET and ET<sub>A</sub> and ET<sub>B</sub> receptors following ARI. Methods: A model of ARI, well characterized previously, was produced by 45 min occlusion of the renal pedicle of unilaterally nephrectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 days after ischaemia (n = 6). Corresponding control groups with unilateral nephrectomy but no ischaemia were sacrificed after 0, 8 and 64 days. Immunohistochemistry for ET-1, -2 and -3 was performed. Tissue ET levels were calculated by RIA (femtomoles per kidney). Receptor ligand binding studies for ET<sub>A</sub> and ET<sub>B</sub> receptors were performed by autoradiography on frozen kidney sections and quantitated by densitometry (relative optical density per square millimetre). Results: The concentration of tissue ET increased from 24 h after ischaemia and remained significantly increased for the duration of the study, reaching a maximum at 8 days. There was a small increase in the non-ischaemic 8-day control group, but this returned to basal levels by day 64. The increase in tissue ET 8 days after ischaemia was localized by immunohistochemistry to renal medullary interstitial cells, damaged tubules at the corticomedullary junction and peritubular capillaries surrounding these damaged tubules. Increases in cortical ET<sub>A</sub> and ET<sub>B</sub> receptors were evident 24 h after ischaemia and were maximal 8 days after ischaemia, before returning to basal levels at 16 days. After a small increase 24 h after ischaemia, medullary ET<sub>A</sub> receptors decreased on day 4 before returning to basal levels on day 8 after ischaemia. Medullary ET<sub>B</sub> receptors, however, decreased on day 4 after ischaemia and remained low throughout the duration of the study. Conclusion: The previously reported amelioration of pathological changes resulting from the use of ET receptor antagonists after ARI may be related to the quantitative and qualitative changes in tissue ET and ET receptors observed in this study.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding an endothelin receptor.

          Endothelins are a newly described peptide family consisting of three peptides (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) which are the most potent vasoconstrictive peptides known. They are crucial in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone. The diverse functions of endothelins are thought to be mediated by interaction with many different receptors coupled to the inositol phosphate/calcium ion messenger pathway. However, because of the structural resemblance of the three peptides, the presence and nature of multiple endothelin receptors remain to be elucidated. We report here the cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a bovine endothelin receptor, which has a transmembrane topology similar to that of other G protein-coupled receptors and shows specific binding, with the highest selectivity to ET-1 in animal cells transfected with the cloned cDNA. This receptor messenger RNA is widely distributed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, particularly in the heart and lung. Our results support the view that there are other receptor subtypes.
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            Cloning of a cDNA encoding a non-isopeptide-selective subtype of the endothelin receptor.

            Endothelin-1 was initially identified as a 21-residue potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells, but was subsequently found to have many effects on both vascular and non-vascular tissues. The discovery of three isopeptides of the endothelin family, ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, each possessing a diverse set of pharmacological activities of different potency, suggested the existence of several different endothelin receptor subtypes. Endothelins may elicit biological responses by various signal-transduction mechanisms, including the G protein-coupled activation of phospholipase C and the activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Thus, different subtypes of the endothelin receptor may use different signal-transduction mechanisms. Here we report the cloning of a complementary DNA encoding one subtype belonging to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA express specific and high-affinity binding sites for endothelins, responding to binding by the production of inositol phosphates and a transient increase in the concentration of intracellular free Ca2+. The three endothelin isopeptides are roughly equipotent in displacing 125I-labelled ET-1 binding and causing Ca2+ mobilization. A messenger RNA corresponding to the cDNA is detected in many rat tissues including the brain, kidney and lung but not in vascular smooth muscle cells. These results indicate that this cDNA encodes a 'nonselective' subtype of the receptor which is different from the vascular smooth muscle receptor.
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              Clearance of circulating endothelin-1 by ETB receptors in rats.

              Exogenous endothelin (ET) is rapidly cleared from the circulation. We investigated which ET receptor subtypes (ETA and ETB) participate in ET-1 clearance. Following an intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose of [125I]ET-1 in anesthetized rats, radioactivity was rapidly cleared from the circulation and trapped by the lungs, kidneys and liver. Tissue distribution of the radioactivity was significantly inhibited in the lungs and kidneys, but not in the liver by infusion of the ETB antagonist BQ-788 (0.1 mg/kg/min i.v.), and the ET-1 clearance rate was reduced, while the ETA antagonist BQ-123 had no such effect. Furthermore, in isolated perfused rat lungs, about 80% of bolus-injected [125I]ET-1 was retained by the lungs after one passage. The retention of ET-1 was significantly inhibited by infusion of 1 microM BQ-788, but not BQ-123. These results suggest that ETB receptors play an important role in the clearance of ET-1.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                31 August 2001
                : 9
                : 5
                : 309-316
                aVictorian Paediatric Renal Service, Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville, Vic., bDepartment of Medicine, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Vic., and cDepartment of Nephrology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Vic., Australia
                52626 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:309–316
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 6, References: 40, Pages: 8
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