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      Hemocromatosis neonatal: Una causa de fallo hepático in útero. Presentación de dos casos y revisión de la bibliografía Translated title: Neonatal hemochromatosis: A cause of liver failure in utero. Report of two cases and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          La hemocromatosis neonatal es una entidad clínicopatológica que presenta fallo hepático grave, se inicia in útero, asociada a siderosis intrahepática y extrahepática, que respeta el sistema reticuloendotelial. Su causa se desconoce pero se debería a un manejo anormal del hierro fetoplacentario con enfermedad hepática perinatal, relación genética familiar o sería consecuencia de una enfermedad gestacional aloinmunitaria. Es un síndrome con características comunes más que una simple entidad patológica, con transmisión materna y alta recurrencia en la misma progenie. La muerte se produce en los primeros días o semanas de vida por fallo multiorgánico. Presentamos dos recién nacidos con hemocromatosis neonatal. El primero falleció por fallo multiorgánico y el segundo permitió el trasplante hepático. Desde 1993, se emplea un cocktail antioxidantequelante del hierro, junto al tratamiento de soporte estándar del fallo hepático, pero su uso es polémico. En 2002, una comunicación preliminar sugiere que el tratamiento con inmunoglobulinas endovenosas en la segunda mitad de la gestación, en mujeres con el antecedente de un hijo con hemocromatosis neonatal probada, previene las formas recurrentes letales de la enfermedad. Este trastorno se debe sospechar en todo fallo hepático grave al nacer, acompañado de valores séricos de ferritina elevados; pero debe confirmarse por un aumento de los depósitos hepáticos de hierro y siderosis extrahepática demostrables por resonancia magnética nuclear, en la biopsia de glándulas salivales o en la autopsia. La hemocromatosis neonatal es la indicación específica más frecuente de trasplante hepático en los primeros 3 meses de vida, que parecería ser el tratamiento de elección por considerar desde el momento que el soporte médico, incluida la terapia antioxidante-quelante del hierro, sea inefectivo, antes de que surjan complicaciones neurológicas irreversibles.

          Translated abstract

          Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare clinical pathologic entity, defined by severe neonatal liver failure of intrauterine onset associated with intra-and extra- hepatic siderosis that spares reticuloendothelial system. It is the most frequently recognized cause of liver failure in neonates. The cause is unknown but it may develop secondary to abnormal fetoplacental iron handling or perinatal liver disease or be familial or as a consequence of gestational alloimmune disease. It's a syndrome with a common feature rather than a single pathologic entity, with maternal transmission and a high recurrence in the sibship. Death from multisystem organ failure usually occurs in the first few days or weeks of life. We report two newborn with neonatal hemochromatosis. The first died for multiorgan failure, despite aggressive support. The second underwent to liver transplantation. Since 1993, an antioxidant-chelator cocktail has been used in addition to standard supportive care, but this remains controversial. By 2002, a preliminary report suggested that treatment with weekly intravenous immunoglobulin during the later half of pregnancy, for woman whose most recent gestation was affected with proven NH. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of severely impaired hepatic synthetic function accompanied by high serum ferritin levels, but is confirmed only by demonstration of increased hepatic iron stores, and extra-hepatic siderosis shown by autopsy or in vivo, which can be achieved by biopsy of the minor salivary glands or magnetic resonance imaging. Neonatal hemochromatosis is the most common specific indication for liver transplantation in the first three months of life and appears to be the treatment of choice, and must as well be considered as soon as it becomes apparent that medical support, which should include chelation-antioxidant treatment, is ineffective, before irreversible neurological complications appear.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Delta 4-3-oxosteroid 5 beta-reductase deficiency causing neonatal liver failure and hemochromatosis.

          Neonatal liver failure was evaluated in two infants. Neither infant had evidence of congenital infection, galactosemia, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, tyrosinemia, Zellweger syndrome, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Abnormal levels of iron were detected in the minor salivary glands of the first infant and in the explanted liver of the second. Analyses of urinary bile salts by fast-atom bombardment ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a paucity of primary bile acids and a predominance of 7 alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholenoic and 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholenoic acids. These findings are consistent with delta 4-3-oxosteroid 5 beta-reductase deficiency, a primary genetic defect in bile acid synthesis. Postmortem evaluation of the first infant revealed significant iron deposition in the liver, pancreas, thyroid, adrenal glands, myocardium, stomach, and submucosal glands of the respiratory tract. In both infants examination of the liver revealed extensive loss of hepatic parenchyma. These cases expand the clinical spectrum of bile acid metabolism defects to include neonatal liver failure with associated hemochromatosis.
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            Neonatal hemochromatosis: outcomes of pharmacologic and surgical therapies.

            Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH), also known as perinatal hemochromatosis or neonatal iron storage disease, is a disorder in fetuses and newborn infants. A retrospective study was conducted to report management of patients with NH. Retrospective analysis was conducted by chart review and by review of histologic material from patients with NH. Neonatal hemochromatosis was diagnosed in 14 patients between 1985 and 1995. All were considered for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTX). From 1993 onward, all patients were treated with an antioxidant-chelation "cocktail," consisting of deferoxamine, vitamin E, N-acetylcysteine, selenium, and prostaglandin-E1. Of 6 patients with NH diagnosed before 1993, 4 underwent OLTX; only 1 is still alive. Of 8 patients with NH diagnosed after 1993 and treated with the cocktail, 7 expired before OLTX. One stabilized on therapy, but having never recovered full synthetic liver function, underwent OLTX and is now alive and well. Neonatal hemochromatosis carries a grim prognosis; however, successful OLTX is curative. The use of an antioxidant-chelation cocktail did not improve outcome in the patients studied. Earlier (perinatal) diagnosis may be required for optimal results. Further study of other interventions, including antenatal diagnosis and earlier institution or modification of cocktail therapy appears warranted.
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              Neonatal hemochromatosis.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                aap
                Archivos argentinos de pediatría
                Arch. argent. pediatr.
                Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría (Buenos Aires )
                1668-3501
                April 2008
                : 106
                : 2
                : 155-161
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Clínica Bazterrica Argentina
                [2 ] Clínica Bazterrica Argentina
                [3 ] Hospital de Pediatría Profesor Dr. Juan P. Garrahan Argentina
                [4 ] Hospital de Pediatría Profesor Dr. Juan P. Garrahan Argentina
                [5 ] Hospital de Pediatría Profesor Dr. Juan P. Garrahan Argentina
                Article
                S0325-00752008000200012

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Argentina
                Categories
                PEDIATRICS

                Pediatrics

                Fallo hepático, Newborn, Liver failure, Hemochromatosis, Hemocromatosis, Recién nacido

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