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      Cambios observados en la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en una población española durante el confinamiento debido a la pandemia ocasionada por el SARS-CoV-2 Translated title: Changes in adherence to the Mediterranean diet observed in a Spanish population during confinement for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

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          Abstract

          Resumen Introducción: el confinamiento domiciliario debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 puede influir en los perfiles dietéticos de la población, sometida súbitamente a un factor estresante que implica importantes modificaciones en los hábitos de vida. Entre otros, la restricción de la movilidad y el cambio en la forma de realizar el trabajo, pasando de ser presencial a no presencial (teletrabajo). Objetivo: conocer el patrón dietético habitual previo al confinamiento y valorar la evolución de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea semanalmente hasta la conclusión del mismo. Métodos: los datos se recopilaron mediante un cuestionario anónimo semanal en línea que monitorizó la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en tiempo real en una muestra inicial de 490 adultos de España. La adherencia a la dieta mediterránea se valoró mediante los cuestionarios MEDAS (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) y PREDIMED modificado. Resultados: el confinamiento debido a la pandemia de COVID-19 influyó en los hábitos alimenticios de los participantes, de modo que la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea aumentó al concluir el período de confinamiento, lo cual tiene especial interés, ya que se partía de una buena adherencia inicial (adherencia MEDAS: 10,03 ± 1,9 inicial y 10,47 ± 2,1 final; p = 0,016; adherencia PREDIMED modificado: 9,26 ± 2,0 inicial y 9,89 ± 2,1 final; p < 0,001), sin observarse cambios clínicamente relevantes en la composición corporal valorada por el índice de masa corporal (IMC) excepto en las mujeres (23,3 kg/m2 ± 2,9 inicial y 23,4 kg/m2 ± 2,9 final; p < 0,001), con un discreto aumento de dicho parámetro pero manteniendo en promedio los valores saludables aconsejados por las guías. Conclusiones: en la población estudiada observamos una mejora de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea sin observar cambios clínicamente relevantes en el IMC.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Introduction: home confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic can influence the dietary profiles of the population, suddenly subjected to a stressful factor that implies important modifications in life habits. Among others, a restriction of mobility and a change in the way of carrying out work, going from being face-to-face to non-contact (teleworking). Objective: to know the usual dietary pattern prior to confinement, and to assess the evolution of adherence to the Mediterranean diet weekly until its conclusion. Methods: data were collected using a weekly anonymous online questionnaire that monitored adherence to the Mediterranean diet in real time in an initial sample of 490 adults from Spain. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using the MEDAS (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener) and modified PREDIMED questionnaires. Results: confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the eating habits of the participants, so that adherence to the Mediterranean diet increased at the end of the confinement period, which is of special interest, since it was based on a good initial adherence (MEDAS adherence: 10. 03 ± 1.9 initial and 10.47 ± 2.1 final; p = 0.016; modified PREDIMED adherence: 9. 26 ± 2.0 initial and 9.89 ± 2.1 final; p < 0.001), without observing clinically relevant changes in body composition as measured by body mass index (BMI) except in women (23.3 kg/m2 ± 2.9 initial and 23.4 kg/m2 ± 2.9 final; p < 0.001), with a slight increase in this parameter, but maintaining on average the healthy values recommended by the guidelines. Conclusions: in the studied population we observed an improvement in adherence to the Mediterranean diet without observing clinically relevant changes in BMI.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Trends in cardiovascular health metrics and associations with all-cause and CVD mortality among US adults.

          Recent recommendations from the American Heart Association aim to improve cardiovascular health by encouraging the general population to meet 7 cardiovascular health metrics: not smoking; being physically active; having normal blood pressure, blood glucose and total cholesterol levels, and weight; and eating a healthy diet. To examine time trends in cardiovascular health metrics and to estimate joint associations and population-attributable fractions of these metrics in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. Study of a nationally representative sample of 44,959 US adults (≥20 years), using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994, 1999-2004, and 2005-2010 and the NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2006). All-cause, CVD, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality. Few participants met all 7 cardiovascular health metrics (2.0% [95% CI, 1.5%-2.5%] in 1988-1994, 1.2% [95% CI, 0.8%-1.9%] in 2005-2010). Among NHANES III participants, 2673 all-cause, 1085 CVD, and 576 IHD deaths occurred (median follow-up, 14.5 years). Among participants who met 1 or fewer cardiovascular health metrics, age- and sex-standardized absolute risks were 14.8 (95% CI, 13.2-16.5) deaths per 1000 person-years for all-cause mortality, 6.5 (95% CI, 5.5-7.6) for CVD mortality, and 3.7 (95% CI, 2.8-4.5) for IHD mortality. Among those who met 6 or more metrics, corresponding risks were 5.4 (95% CI, 3.6-7.3) for all-cause mortality, 1.5 (95% CI, 0.5-2.5) for CVD mortality, and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0) for IHD mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios were 0.49 (95% CI, 0.33-0.74) for all-cause mortality, 0.24 (95% CI, 0.13-0.47) for CVD mortality, and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13-0.68) for IHD mortality, comparing participants who met 6 or more vs 1 or fewer cardiovascular health metrics. Adjusted population-attributable fractions were 59% (95% CI, 33%-76%) for all-cause mortality, 64% (95% CI, 28%-84%) for CVD mortality, and 63% (95% CI, 5%-89%) for IHD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of total and CVD mortality, but the prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was low in the study population.
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            Defining and setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction: the American Heart Association's strategic Impact Goal through 2020 and beyond.

            This document details the procedures and recommendations of the Goals and Metrics Committee of the Strategic Planning Task Force of the American Heart Association, which developed the 2020 Impact Goals for the organization. The committee was charged with defining a new concept, cardiovascular health, and determining the metrics needed to monitor it over time. Ideal cardiovascular health, a concept well supported in the literature, is defined by the presence of both ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, body mass index <25 kg/m(2), physical activity at goal levels, and pursuit of a diet consistent with current guideline recommendations) and ideal health factors (untreated total cholesterol <200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, and fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dL). Appropriate levels for children are also provided. With the use of levels that span the entire range of the same metrics, cardiovascular health status for the whole population is defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. These metrics will be monitored to determine the changing prevalence of cardiovascular health status and define achievement of the Impact Goal. In addition, the committee recommends goals for further reductions in cardiovascular disease and stroke mortality. Thus, the committee recommends the following Impact Goals: "By 2020, to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% while reducing deaths from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%." These goals will require new strategic directions for the American Heart Association in its research, clinical, public health, and advocacy programs for cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention in the next decade and beyond.
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              Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries.

              Decades ago, discussion of an impending global pandemic of obesity was thought of as heresy. But in the 1970s, diets began to shift towards increased reliance upon processed foods, increased away-from-home food intake, and increased use of edible oils and sugar-sweetened beverages. Reductions in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior began to be seen as well. The negative effects of these changes began to be recognized in the early 1990s, primarily in low- and middle-income populations, but they did not become clearly acknowledged until diabetes, hypertension, and obesity began to dominate the globe. Now, rapid increases in the rates of obesity and overweight are widely documented, from urban and rural areas in the poorest countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to populations in countries with higher income levels. Concurrent rapid shifts in diet and activity are well documented as well. An array of large-scale programmatic and policy measures are being explored in a few countries; however, few countries are engaged in serious efforts to prevent the serious dietary challenges being faced. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                nh
                Nutrición Hospitalaria
                Nutr. Hosp.
                Grupo Arán (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                0212-1611
                1699-5198
                February 2021
                : 38
                : 1
                : 109-120
                Affiliations
                Albacete orgnameUniversidad de Castilla-La Mancha orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Spain
                Albacete orgnameEquipo de Atención Primaria Zona 7 España
                Alicante orgnameUniversidad Miguel Hernández España
                Barcelona orgnameFundación Fomento Salud España
                Barcelona orgnameInstituto Catalán de la Salud España
                Candás Asturias orgnameInstituto Corvilud España
                Article
                S0212-16112021000100109 S0212-1611(21)03800100109
                10.20960/nh.03275

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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