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      Influencing factors for high quality care on postpartum haemorrhage in the Netherlands: patient and professional perspectives

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          Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) remains a major contributor to maternal morbidity even in high resource settings, despite the development and dissemination of evidence-based guidelines and Advance-Trauma-Life-Support (ATLS) based courses for optimal management of PPH. We aimed to assess current influencing factors (obstacles and facilitators) for the delivery of high quality PPH-care from both patient and professional perspective.


          We qualitatively explored influencing factors for delivering high quality PPH-care, by having individual interviews with PPH-patients and focus group interviews with the different types of professionals working in the delivery room. For both perspectives, the theoretical frameworks of Grol and Cabana were used to classify the influencing factors for optimal PPH-care (factors of the guidelines, of professionals, of patients, of the social setting and of the organisation). In order to assess the importance of the influencing factors found among the professionals, we quantified these factors in a web-based questionnaire.


          A total of 12 patients and 41 professionals participated in the interviews, and 315 complete surveys were analyzed. The main obstacle for high quality PPH-care identified by patients was the lack of information given by the professionals to the patient and partner before, during and after the PPH event. An informative patient website, a patient leaflet and a follow-up consultation were mentioned as facilitators. The main obstacles according to the professionals were: lack of clarity of the guidelines, lack of knowledge and failing team-communication. Team training and checklists/ flowcharts were considered facilitators.


          Different obstacles to the delivery of high quality PPH-care were identified by both patients and professionals. These data can be used to develop a focused strategy to improve PPH-care.

          Trial registration

          NCT 00928863

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          Most cited references 42

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          Clinical guidelines: potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines.

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            Trends in postpartum hemorrhage in high resource countries: a review and recommendations from the International Postpartum Hemorrhage Collaborative Group

            Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Several recent publications have noted an increasing trend in incidence over time. The international PPH collaboration was convened to explore the observed trends and to set out actions to address the factors identified. Methods We reviewed available data sources on the incidence of PPH over time in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the USA. Where information was available, the incidence of PPH was stratified by cause. Results We observed an increasing trend in PPH, using heterogeneous definitions, in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA. The observed increase in PPH in Australia, Canada and the USA was limited solely to immediate/atonic PPH. We noted increasing rates of severe adverse outcomes due to hemorrhage in Australia, Canada, the UK and the USA. Conclusion Key Recommendations 1. Future revisions of the International Classification of Diseases should include separate codes for atonic PPH and PPH immediately following childbirth that is due to other causes. Also, additional codes are required for placenta accreta/percreta/increta. 2. Definitions of PPH should be unified; further research is required to investigate how definitions are applied in practice to the coding of data. 3. Additional improvement in the collection of data concerning PPH is required, specifically including a measure of severity. 4. Further research is required to determine whether an increased rate of reported PPH is also observed in other countries, and to further investigate potential risk factors including increased duration of labor, obesity and changes in second and third stage management practice. 5. Training should be provided to all staff involved in maternity care concerning assessment of blood loss and the monitoring of women after childbirth. This is key to reducing the severity of PPH and preventing any adverse outcomes. 6. Clinicians should be more vigilant given the possibility that the frequency and severity of PPH has in fact increased. This applies particularly to small hospitals with relatively few deliveries where management protocols may not be defined adequately and drugs or equipment may not be on hand to deal with unexpected severe PPH.
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              Severe maternal morbidity during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium in the Netherlands: a nationwide population-based study of 371,000 pregnancies.

              To assess incidence, case fatality rate, risk factors and substandard care in severe maternal morbidity in the Netherlands. Prospective population-based cohort study. All 98 maternity units in the Netherlands. All pregnant women in the Netherlands. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were collected during a 2-year period. All pregnant women in the Netherlands in the same period acted as reference cohort (n = 371,021). As immigrant women are disproportionately represented in Dutch maternal mortality statistics, special attention was paid to the ethnic background. In a subset of 2.5% of women, substandard care was assessed through clinical audit. Incidence, case fatality rates, possible risk factors and substandard care. Severe maternal morbidity was reported in 2552 women, giving an overall incidence of 7.1 per 1000 deliveries. Intensive care unit admission was reported in 847 women (incidence 2.4 per 1000), uterine rupture in 218 women (incidence 6.1/10,000), eclampsia in 222 women (incidence 6.2/10,000) and major obstetric haemorrhage in 1606 women (incidence 4.5 per 1000). Non-Western immigrant women had a 1.3-fold increased risk of severe maternal morbidity (95% CI 1.2-1.5) when compared with Western women. Overall case fatality rate was 1 in 53. Substandard care was found in 39 of a subset of 63 women (62%) through clinical audit. Severe maternal morbidity complicates at least 0.71% of all pregnancies in the Netherlands, immigrant women experiencing an increased risk. Since substandard care was found in the majority of assessed cases, reduction of severe maternal morbidity seems a mandatory challenge.

                Author and article information

                +312436114747 , mallory.woiski@radboudumc.nl
                BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
                BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
                BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
                BioMed Central (London )
                23 October 2015
                23 October 2015
                : 15
                [ ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, P. O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [ ]Scientific Institute for Quality of Hospital and Integrated Care (IQ healthcare), Radboud University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
                [ ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands
                © Woiski et al. 2015

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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