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      Uncovering the diversity of monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) on endemic cypriniform fishes of the Balkan Peninsula: new species of Dactylogyrus and comments on their phylogeny and host-parasite associations in a biogeographic context Translated title: Découverte de la diversité des Monogènes (Plathelminthes) des poissons cypriniformes endémiques de la péninsule balkanique : nouvelles espèces de Dactylogyrus et commentaires sur leur phylogénie et les associations hôte-parasite dans un contexte biogéographique

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Monogenea, Dactylogyridae, Dactylogyrus, Cyprinidae, Leuciscidae, Balkan Peninsula

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          Abstract

          Seven new species of Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 (Dactylogyridae) are described from the gills of seven endemic species of cyprinoids (Cyprinidae, Leuciscidae) inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula: Dactylogyrus romuli n. sp. from Luciobarbus albanicus (Greece), Dactylogyrus remi n. sp. from Luciobarbus graecus (Greece), Dactylogyrus recisus n. sp. from Pachychilon macedonicum (Greece), Dactylogyrus octopus n. sp. from Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus (Greece), Dactylogyrus vukicae n. sp. from Delminichthys adspersus (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Dactylogyrus leptus n. sp. from Chondrostoma knerii (Bosnia and Herzegovina), and Dactylogyrus sandai n. sp. from Telestes karsticus (Croatia). To delineate species boundaries, we used an integrative taxonomic approach combining morphological and genetic data. With these tools, we illustrate that some species of monogeneans considered as cryptic might be designated as pseudocryptic (morphologically similar, not easily differentiated) after a posteriori detailed morphological examination, as happened with D. romuli n. sp. and D. remi n. sp. Thus, for accurate species characterization, it is particularly important to acquire both morphological and molecular data from the same individual specimens, ideally along with illustrations of taxonomically important structures directly taken from hologenophores. Using phylogenetic reconstruction, we investigated the phylogenetic position of newly described Dactylogyrus species within Dactylogyrus species from Balkan cyprinoids with regard to morphological characteristics, host range, and geographical distribution.

          Translated abstract

          Sept nouvelles espèces de Dactylogyrus Diesing, 1850 (Dactylogyridae) sont décrites à partir des branchies de sept espèces endémiques de cyprinoïdés (Cyprinidae, Leuciscidae) habitant la péninsule balkanique : Dactylogyrus romuli n. sp. de Luciobarbus albanicus (Grèce), Dactylogyrus remi n. sp. de Luciobarbus graecus (Grèce), Dactylogyrus recisus n. sp. de Pachychilon macedonicum (Grèce), Dactylogyrus octopus n. sp. de Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus (Grèce), Dactylogyrus vukicae n. sp. de Delminichthys adspersus (Bosnie-Herzégovine), Dactylogyrus leptus n. sp. de Chondrostoma knerii (Bosnie-Herzégovine) et Dactylogyrus sandai n. sp. de Telestes karsticus (Croatie). Pour la délimitation des espèces, nous avons utilisé une approche taxonomique intégrative combinant des données morphologiques et génétiques. Avec ces outils, nous illustrons que certaines espèces de Monogènes considérées comme cryptiques pourraient être désignées comme pseudocryptiques (morphologiquement similaires, pas facilement différenciées) après un examen morphologique détaillé a posteriori, comme cela s’est produit avec D. romuli n. sp. et D. remi n. sp. Ainsi, pour une caractérisation précise des espèces, il est particulièrement important d’acquérir des données morphologiques et moléculaires à partir des mêmes spécimens individuels, idéalement avec des illustrations de structures taxonomiquement importantes directement prises à partir d’hologénophores. En utilisant la reconstruction phylogénétique, nous avons étudié la position phylogénétique des espèces de Dactylogyrus nouvellement décrites au sein des espèces de Dactylogyrus des cyprinoïdés des Balkans en ce qui concerne les caractéristiques morphologiques, la gamme d’hôtes et la distribution géographique.

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            RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

            Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                24 November 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University Kotlářská 2 611 37 Brno Czech Republic
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: evar@ 123456sci.muni.cz
                Article
                parasite200098 10.1051/parasite/2020059
                10.1051/parasite/2020059
                7685236
                33231549
                © E. Řehulková et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 14, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 92, Pages: 22
                Categories
                Research Article

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