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      Assessment of an intervention aimed at early discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobial therapy in a Brazilian University hospital


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          Abstract Many interventions demonstrate success in adapting the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy, but few studies have been conducted in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in the induction of early discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobial therapy and/or its switch to oral therapy. The study employed a before–after intervention design that consisted of displaying a message in the computerized prescription on the third day and suspension of the prescription on the fifth day of intravenous antimicrobial therapy. A total of 465 patients were followed during the control period (CP) and 440 in the intervention period (IP). The intravenous therapy was switched to oral therapy for 11 (2.4%) patients during the CP and 25 (5.7%) in the IP (p = 0.011), and was discontinued for 82 (17.6%) patients during the CP and 106 (24.1%) in the IP (p = 0.017). During the IP there was a significant increase of patients who had their antimicrobial treatment discontinued before the seventh day of intravenous treatment, 37.40% (49/131) in the IP and 16.13% (15/93) in the CP (p = 0.0005). The duration of intravenous antimicrobial therapy decreased by one day, but it was not significant (p = 0.136). It is concluded that the proposed intervention is effective in promoting the early discontinuation of antimicrobial treatment and/or switch to oral therapy. As long as a computerized system for prescription already exists, it is easy and inexpensive to be implemented, especially in hospitals in developing countries.

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          Antibiotic consumption and link to resistance.

          Antibiotic use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections is common in primary care. The European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC programme), collecting data from 35 countries, showed that antibiotic use was highest in southern European countries. Increased antibiotic consumption has been shown by numerous ecological studies to contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in streptococci. A study comparing outpatient antibiotic consumption in the USA showed it to be similar to that in southern European countries, but macrolides, particularly azithromycin, are among the first-line agents prescribed in the USA for respiratory infections. In Europe, patients are more likely to receive a beta-lactam; and when a macrolide is indicated, clarithromycin is more likely to be prescribed than azithromycin. Streptococci resistance to macrolides can be acquired via two mechanisms: by the mef gene, which encodes for the efflux pump mechanism, producing low to moderate resistance, or the erm gene (post-transcriptional modification of the bacterial ribosomal unit), resulting in high resistance. Macrolide resistance is mediated by erm(B) and mef(A) alone or in combination. A surveillance study showed that mef was responsible for most of the macrolide resistance seen in the USA; a decrease in the number of isolates carrying mef(A) was associated with a doubling of the number of isolates carrying both mef(A) and erm(B). Higher consumption of clarithromycin in Europe correlated with a predominance of erm(B)-carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae. The erm(B) gene caused resistance in 84% of the isolates in Europe.
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            The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil.

            Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.
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              Reassessment of intravenous antibiotic therapy using a reminder or direct counselling


                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
                Braz J Infect Dis
                Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
                October 2016
                : 20
                : 5
                : 462-467
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Brazil

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1413-8670&lng=en

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Antibiotics,Intravenous administration,Oral administration,Inappropriate prescribing


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