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      Endothelin 1: A Potential Prognostic Biomarker for Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and Pulmonary Hypertension?

      * , ,
      S. Karger AG

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          Dual Endothelin-A/Endothelin-B Receptor Blockade and Cardiac Remodeling in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

          Background Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in humans, there remains no evidence-based therapies for HFpEF. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonists are a possibility because elevated ET-1 levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, such as arterial and pulmonary vasoconstriction, impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation, and stimulation of LV hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy is a common phenotype in HFpEF, particularly when associated with hypertension. Methods and Results In the present study, we found that ET-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with chronic stable HFpEF. We then sought to investigate the effects of chronic macitentan, a dual ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist, on cardiac structure and function in a murine model of HFpEF induced by chronic aldosterone infusion. Macitentan caused LV hypertrophy regression independent of blood pressure changes in HFpEF. Although macitentan did not modulate diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF, it significantly reduced wall thickness and relative wall thickness after 2 weeks of therapy. In vitro studies showed that macitentan decreased the aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These changes were mediated by a reduction in the expression of cardiac myocyte enhancer factor 2a. Moreover, macitentan improved adverse cardiac remodeling, by reducing the stiffer cardiac collagen I and titin n2b expression in the left ventricle of mice with HFpEF. Conclusions These findings indicate that dual ET-A/ET-B receptor inhibition improves HFpEF by abrogating adverse cardiac remodeling via antihypertrophic mechanisms and by reducing stiffness. Additional studies are needed to explore the role of dual ET-1 receptor antagonists in patients with HFpEF.
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            Endothelin 1 Is Associated with Heart Failure Hospitalization and Long-Term Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and Pulmonary Hypertension

            Background: The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing. We aim to study the role of big endothelin 1 (Big ET1), endothelin 1 (ET1), and neprilysin (NE) in HFpEF with PH. Method: This was a single center prospective cohort study including 90 HFpEF patients; 30 with no PH, 30 with postcapillary PH, and 30 with combined post- and precapillary PH. After enrollment, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial samples of Big ET1, ET1, and NE were collected during right heart catheterization. Subjects were then followed long term for adverse outcomes which included echocardiographic evidence of right ventricular dysfunction, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. Results: Patients with HFpEF-PH were found to have increased ET1 in pulmonary veins (endothelin from the wedge; ET1W) compared to controls (2.3 ± 1.4 and 1.6 ± 0.9 pg/mL, respectively). ET1W levels were associated with both PH (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5–4.7, p = 0.01) and pulmonary vascular resistance (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.04–2.3, p = 0.03). No evidence of right ventricular dysfunction was observed after 1 year of follow-up. ET1W (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.6, p = 0.01) and ET1 gradient (ET1G; OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04–2, p = 0.03) were predictive of 1-year hospitalization. ET1G ≥0.2 pg/mL was associated with long-term mortality (log-rank 4.8, p = 0.03). Conclusion: In HFpEF patients, ET1W and ET1G are predictive of 1-year heart failure hospitalization, while elevated ET1G levels were found to be associated with long-term mortality in HFpEF. This study highlights the role of ET1 in developing PH in HFpEF patients and also explores the potential of ET1 as a prognostic biomarker.
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              The transpulmonary ratio of endothelin 1 is elevated in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and combined pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension

              Pulmonary hypertension complicating left heart disease (PH-LHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients who develop combined pre- and post-capillary PH (Cpc-PH). Mechanisms underlying PH-LHD are incompletely understood, particularly for individuals with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that transpulmonary concentrations of biomarkers representing signaling pathways with known effects on the pulmonary circulation could provide insight into the molecular etiology of PH-LHD in patients with preserved LVEF. Blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery (PA) and wedge positions of outpatients with normal LVEF referred for right heart catheterization. Hemodynamic tracings were reviewed to classify patients as “no PH” (n = 23) or “PH-LHD” (n = 22). A biomarker’s transpulmonary ratio (TPR) was calculated as the quotient of wedge and PA concentrations. The TPR of endothelin 1 (ET-1) was elevated in Cpc-PH (n = 10) compared to no PH or isolated post-capillary PH (Ipc-PH, n = 12); cAMP and cGMP TPRs were not different among groups. Higher ET-1 TPR in Cpc-PH was due to increased wedge ET-1 concentration. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) strongly correlated with wedge ET-1 exclusively in Cpc-PH patients. In patients with normal LVEF and Cpc-PH, ET-1 TPR is higher, due to elevated wedge ET-1, compared to those without PH or with Ipc-PH. Strong correlation between PVR and wedge ET-1, observed only in the Cpc-PH group, may suggest increased pulmonary vascular responsiveness to ET-1 in these patients. These findings implicate elevated pulmonary ET-1 as a marker of, and a potential contributor to, development of Cpc-PH in this population.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2020
                11 February 2020
                : 145
                : 4
                : 262
                Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China
                Author notes
                *Xin He, Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 72 Guangzhou Rd, Nanjing 210009 (China), hexin19870422@163.com, , Jing Xu, Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 72 Guangzhou Rd, Nanjing 210009 (China), njxujing2018@163.com
                505681 Cardiology 2020;145:262
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 27 December 2019
                : 02 January 2020
                Page count
                Pages: 1
                Pulmonary Circulation and RV: Letter

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology


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