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      ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Polycipiviridae


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          Polycipiviridae is a family of picorna-like viruses with non-segmented, linear, positive-sense RNA genomes of approximately 10–12 kb. Unusually for viruses within the order Picornavirales, their genomes are polycistronic, with four (or more) consecutive 5′-proximal open reading frames (ORFs) encoding structural (and possibly other) proteins and a long 3′ ORF encoding the replication polyprotein. Members of species within the family have all been detected in ants or via arthropod transcriptomic datasets. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the Polycipiviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/polycipiviridae.

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          A new positive-strand RNA virus with unique genome characteristics from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

          We report the discovery of a new virus with unique genome characteristics from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. This virus represents the second identified from this ant species. It is provisionally named Solenopsis invicta virus 2 (SINV-2). The SINV-2 genome was constructed by compiling sequences from successive 5' RACE reactions, a 3' RACE reaction, and expressed sequence tag, c246 (accession number EH413675), from a fire ant expression library. The SINV-2 genome structure was monopartite, polycistronic and RNA-based. The genome consensus sequence (EF428566) was 11,303 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' end. Analysis of the genome revealed 4 major open reading frames (ORFs; comprised of > or =100 codons) and 5 minor ORFs (comprised of 50-99 codons) in the sense orientation. No large ORFs were found in the inverse orientation suggesting that the SINV-2 genome was from a positive-strand RNA virus. Further evidence for this conclusion includes abolished RT-PCR amplification by RNase treatment of SINV-2 nucleic acid template, and failure to amplify without first conducting cDNA synthesis. Blastp analysis indicated that ORF 4 contained conserved domains of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, helicase, and protease, characteristic of positive-strand RNA viruses. However, the protease domain and putative structural proteins (ORFs 1, 2, and 3) were less well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, helicase, and ORF 1 indicate unique placement of SINV-2 exclusive from the Dicistroviridae, iflaviruses, Picornaviridae, and plant small RNA viruses.
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            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Dynamic changes in host–virus interactions associated with colony founding and social environment in fire ant queens (Solenopsis invicta)

            Abstract The dynamics of host–parasite interactions can change dramatically over the course of a chronic infection as the internal (physiological) and external (environmental) conditions of the host change. When queens of social insects found a colony, they experience changes in both their physiological state (they develop their ovaries and begin laying eggs) and the social environment (they suddenly stop interacting with the other members of the mother colony), making this an excellent model system for examining how these factors interact with chronic infections. We investigated the dynamics of host–viral interactions in queens of Solenopsis invicta (fire ant) as they transition from mating to colony founding/brood rearing to the emergence of the first workers. We examined these dynamics in naturally infected queens in two different social environments, where queens either founded colonies as individuals or as pairs. We hypothesized that stress associated with colony founding plays an important role in the dynamics of host–parasite interactions. We also hypothesized that different viruses have different modalities of interaction with the host that can be quantified by physiological measures and genomic analysis of gene expression in the host. We found that the two most prevalent viruses, SINV‐1 and SINV‐2, are associated with different fitness costs that are mirrored by different patterns of gene expression in the host. In fact SINV‐2, the virus that imposes the significant reduction of a queen's reproductive output is also associated with larger changes of global gene expression in the host. These results show the complexity of interactions between S. invicta and two viral parasites. Our findings also show that chronic infections by viral parasites in insects are dynamic processes that may pose different challenges in the host, laying the groundwork for interesting ecological and evolutionary considerations.
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              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Infection characteristics of Solenopsis invicta virus 2 in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

              Solenopsis invicta virus 2 (SINV-2) is the second virus identified from the fire ant, S. invicta Buren. SINV-2 is unique among positive-strand RNA viruses from insects by possessing four cistrons in a monopartite genome. Fire ant colonies testing positive for SINV-2 by RT-PCR did not exhibit any discernable symptoms. RT-PCR-based surveys for SINV-2 among 688 fire ant mounds in Alachua County, Florida, sampled during the period January, 2006 through December, 2007 showed that the prevalence of SINV-2 among nests ranged from 1.6% to 16.4%. Unlike S. invicta virus 1, no seasonal-associated prevalence was observed with regard to SINV-2 infection among fire ant colonies. No social form specificity was evident; SINV-2 was found in both monogyne and polygyne S. invicta ants. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments showed that SINV-2 genome equivalents per individual ant ranged from 1.9x10(7)in. pupae to 4.3x10(11)in. inseminated queens. The SINV-2 infection was detected in all ant stages examined (eggs, larvae, pupae, workers, and queens). Tissue tropism studies indicated that the alimentary canal (specifically the midgut) is most likely the susceptible tissue. SINV-2 was successfully transmitted to uninfected S. invicta ants by feeding a partially purified homogenate of SINV-2-infected ants. The SINV-2 transmission rate ranged from 30% to 80%, and both positive (genomic) and negative (replicative) SINV-2 RNA strands accumulated in recipient ants over the course of the experiment. These results indicated that SINV-2 replicates within S. invicta.

                Author and article information

                J Gen Virol
                J. Gen. Virol
                The Journal of General Virology
                Microbiology Society
                April 2019
                5 March 2019
                5 March 2019
                : 100
                : 4
                : 554-555
                [ 1] Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge , Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
                [ 2] United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service , Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
                [ 3] United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service , Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
                [ 4] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country (EHU), Biophysics Institute (CSIC-UPV/EHU) , Bo Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Spain
                [ 5] BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. , San Rafael, CA 94901, USA
                [ 6] Department of Genetics, Universitat de València , Burjassot, Spain
                [ 7] Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , Uppsala 750 07, Sweden
                Author notes
                *Correspondence: Andrew E. Firth, aef24@ 123456cam.ac.uk

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 11 February 2019
                : 13 February 2019
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust
                Award ID: WT108418AIA
                ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profiles
                Insect Viruses
                Custom metadata

                Microbiology & Virology
                polycipiviridae,ictv report,taxonomy
                Microbiology & Virology
                polycipiviridae, ictv report, taxonomy


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