We report the discovery of a new virus with unique genome characteristics from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. This virus represents the second identified from this ant species. It is provisionally named Solenopsis invicta virus 2 (SINV-2). The SINV-2 genome was constructed by compiling sequences from successive 5' RACE reactions, a 3' RACE reaction, and expressed sequence tag, c246 (accession number EH413675), from a fire ant expression library. The SINV-2 genome structure was monopartite, polycistronic and RNA-based. The genome consensus sequence (EF428566) was 11,303 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail present on the 3' end. Analysis of the genome revealed 4 major open reading frames (ORFs; comprised of > or =100 codons) and 5 minor ORFs (comprised of 50-99 codons) in the sense orientation. No large ORFs were found in the inverse orientation suggesting that the SINV-2 genome was from a positive-strand RNA virus. Further evidence for this conclusion includes abolished RT-PCR amplification by RNase treatment of SINV-2 nucleic acid template, and failure to amplify without first conducting cDNA synthesis. Blastp analysis indicated that ORF 4 contained conserved domains of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, helicase, and protease, characteristic of positive-strand RNA viruses. However, the protease domain and putative structural proteins (ORFs 1, 2, and 3) were less well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp, helicase, and ORF 1 indicate unique placement of SINV-2 exclusive from the Dicistroviridae, iflaviruses, Picornaviridae, and plant small RNA viruses.