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      Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: Current status and their future prospects

      , ,

      Environmental Engineering Research

      Korean Society of Environmental Engineering

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          Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review.

          Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable. Dyes represent one of the problematic groups. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional sorbents have been investigated. It is well-known that natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and biosorbents can be obtained and employed as inexpensive sorbents. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses various mechanisms involved. It is evident from a literature survey of about 210 recent papers that low-cost sorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain dyes. In particular, chitosan might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.
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            Biosorption of heavy metals.

             B Volesky,  Z R Holan (2015)
            Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. Elucidation of mechanisms active in metal biosorption is essential for successful exploitation of the phenomenon and for regeneration of biosorbent materials in multiple reuse cycles. The complex nature of biosorbent materials makes this task particularly challenging. Discussion focuses on the composition of marine algae polysaccharide structures, which seem instrumental in metal uptake and binding. The state of the art in the field of biosorption is reviewed in this article, with many references to recent reviews and key individual contributions.
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              Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future.

              A vast array of biological materials, especially bacteria, algae, yeasts and fungi have received increasing attention for heavy metal removal and recovery due to their good performance, low cost and large available quantities. The biosorbent, unlike mono functional ion exchange resins, contains variety of functional sites including carboxyl, imidazole, sulphydryl, amino, phosphate, sulfate, thioether, phenol, carbonyl, amide and hydroxyl moieties. Biosorbents are cheaper, more effective alternatives for the removal of metallic elements, especially heavy metals from aqueous solution. In this paper, based on the literatures and our research results, the biosorbents widely used for heavy metal removal were reviewed, mainly focusing on their cellular structure, biosorption performance, their pretreatment, modification, regeneration/reuse, modeling of biosorption (isotherm and kinetic models), the development of novel biosorbents, their evaluation, potential application and future. The pretreatment and modification of biosorbents aiming to improve their sorption capacity was introduced and evaluated. Molecular biotechnology is a potent tool to elucidate the mechanisms at molecular level, and to construct engineered organisms with higher biosorption capacity and selectivity for the objective metal ions. The potential application of biosorption and biosorbents was discussed. Although the biosorption application is facing the great challenge, there are two trends for the development of the biosorption process for metal removal. One trend is to use hybrid technology for pollutants removal, especially using living cells. Another trend is to develop the commercial biosorbents using immobilization technology, and to improve the biosorption process including regeneration/reuse, making the biosorbents just like a kind of ion exchange resin, as well as to exploit the market with great endeavor.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environmental Engineering Research
                Environmental Engineering Research
                Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
                1226-1025
                March 31 2015
                March 31 2015
                : 20
                : 1
                : 1-18
                Article
                10.4491/eer.2015.018
                © 2015

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