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      Bioadsorbents for remediation of heavy metals: Current status and their future prospects

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          Most cited references 194

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          Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review.

          Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable. Dyes represent one of the problematic groups. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional sorbents have been investigated. It is well-known that natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and biosorbents can be obtained and employed as inexpensive sorbents. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses various mechanisms involved. It is evident from a literature survey of about 210 recent papers that low-cost sorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain dyes. In particular, chitosan might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.
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            Biosorption of heavy metals.

             B Volesky,  Z R Holan (2015)
            Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. Elucidation of mechanisms active in metal biosorption is essential for successful exploitation of the phenomenon and for regeneration of biosorbent materials in multiple reuse cycles. The complex nature of biosorbent materials makes this task particularly challenging. Discussion focuses on the composition of marine algae polysaccharide structures, which seem instrumental in metal uptake and binding. The state of the art in the field of biosorption is reviewed in this article, with many references to recent reviews and key individual contributions.
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              A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae.

              The passive removal of toxic heavy metals such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+), and Hg(2+) by inexpensive biomaterials, termed biosorption, requires that the substrate displays high metal uptake and selectivity, as well as suitable mechanical properties for applied remediation scenarios. In recent years, many low-cost sorbents have been investigated, but the brown algae have since proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. It is their basic biochemical constitution that is responsible for this enhanced performance among biomaterials. More specifically, it is the properties of cell wall constituents, such as alginate and fucoidan, which are chiefly responsible for heavy metal chelation. In this comprehensive review, the emphasis is on outlining the biochemical properties of the brown algae that set them apart from other algal biosorbents. A detailed description of the macromolecular conformation of the alginate biopolymer is offered in order to explain the heavy metal selectivity displayed by the brown algae. The role of cellular structure, storage polysaccharides, cell wall and extracellular polysaccharides is evaluated in terms of their potential for metal sequestration. Binding mechanisms are discussed, including the key functional groups involved and the ion-exchange process. Quantification of metal-biomass interactions is fundamental to the evaluation of potential implementation strategies, hence sorption isotherms, ion-exchange constants, as well as models used to characterize algal biosorption are reviewed. The sorption behavior (i.e., capacity, affinity) of brown algae with various heavy metals is summarized and their relative performance is evaluated.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environmental Engineering Research
                Environmental Engineering Research
                Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
                1226-1025
                March 31 2015
                March 31 2015
                : 20
                : 1
                : 1-18
                10.4491/eer.2015.018
                © 2015

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