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      Swallowing disorders in patients with blepharospasm Translated title: Trastornos deglutorios en pacientes con blefaroespasmo

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          Abstract

          Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eye closure due to abnormal contraction of orbicular eyelid muscles. When blepharospasm is associated to the presence of involuntary oromandibular movements, it is termed Meige syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of deglutition alterations in patients with concurrent blepharospasm and Meige syndrome. Twenty consecutive patients were studied by video fluoroscopy using a barium technique. The 4 stages of deglutition were investigated. Ninety percent of patients (18 cases) presented deglutition disorders. The more commonly found alterations were premature food drop, 15 cases (83%) and vallecuale residuals, 14 cases (78%). Sixty seven percent of abnormal findings occurred in the third stage of deglutition. Eighty-nine percent of patients (16) presented more than one swallowing alteration. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of alterations and patient's age or disease duration. Prevalence of swallowing disorders in the healthy elderly population is reported to be 44%. In our series it reached 90%, suggesting that our findings might be related not only with age but also with a more widespread dystonia exceeding the orofacial muscles.

          Translated abstract

          El blefaroespasmo es una distonía focal caracterizada por el cierre involuntario de los ojos debido a la contracción anormal de los músculos orbiculares de los párpados. Cuando el blefaroespasmo se asocia a la presencia de movimientos involuntarios oromandibulares se denomina síndrome de Meige. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la presencia de alteraciones deglutorias en pacientes con blefaroespasmo y síndrome de Meige. Se incluyeron 20 pacientes consecutivos que fueron estudiados mediante vídeo fluoroscopia con técnica de bario. Se investigaron las 4 etapas de la deglución. El 90% de los pacientes (18 casos) presentó trastornos en la deglución. Las alteraciones más comúnmente halladas fueron caída prematura del alimento, 15 casos (83%) y residuos valeculares, 14 casos (78%). El 67% de anormalidades se observó en la tercera etapa de la deglución. El 89% de los pacientes (16) presentó más de un trastorno deglutorio. Se observó una correlación positiva y estadísticamente significativa entre el número de hallazgos patológicos y la edad de los pacientes y la duración de la enfermedad. De acuerdo a lo publicado, la prevalencia de desórdenes de la deglución en pacientes sanos de edad avanzada es del 44%. En nuestra serie alcanzó el 90%, lo cual sugiere que nuestros hallazgos podrían estar relacionados no sólo con la edad, sino también con la posibilidad de que el compromiso distónico en pacientes con blefaroespasmo sea mayor de lo que se aprecia clínicamente extendiéndose más allá de los músculos orofaciales.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Swallowing abnormalities and their response to treatment in Parkinson's disease.

          We investigated swallowing abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease, the relationship between these abnormalities and general parkinsonian signs, as well as the response to therapy. Twenty patients and 13 controls were evaluated with clinical rating scales and modified barium swallows before and after oral levodopa (in combination with carbidopa). Fifteen patients, but only 1 control, had abnormal swallows (chi 2 = 11.722, df = 1, p less than 0.001). Abnormalities included disturbances of oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. Patients without dysphagia frequently had abnormal swallows, including silent aspiration. Seven patients had improved swallowing after levodopa, whereas 1 worsened. Improvement in general parkinsonian signs was not a reliable indicator of improved swallowing.
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            Deglutition: pharyngeal stage.

             J F Bosma (1957)
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              Mechanisms of dysphagia in suprabulbar palsy with lacunar infarct.

              The objective of the present study was to investigate the neural mechanisms of dysphagia in suprabulbar palsy (SBP) with multiple lacunar infarct. We evaluated the swallowing disorders of patients with SBP (n=34) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n=35) by means of an electrophysiological method that recorded the oropharyngeal swallowing patterns. With this method, dysphagia limit, the triggering of voluntarily initiated swallows, duration of laryngeal relocation time, and total duration of oropharyngeal swallowing were recorded and measured. In addition, the EMG behavior of the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle of the upper esophageal sphincter was also assessed. In patients with SBP, the dysphagia limit in all except 1 patient was pathological with limits of <20-mL bolus volume, which is contrary to normal subjects, in whom the dysphagia limit exceeds the 20-mL bolus volume. Either triggering of swallowing reflex was delayed (P<0.04), or the swallow could hardly be triggered in 7 patients on the voluntary attempts for 3 mL water. Whenever the reflex swallowing could be triggered, it was slow and prolonged (P<0.01). The CP muscle of the upper esophageal sphincter appeared to have become hyperreflexic and incoordinated with laryngeal movements during swallowing. It was proposed that the progressive involvement of the excitatory and inhibitory corticobulbar fiber systems linked with the bulbar swallowing center is mainly responsible for the triggering difficulties of the swallowing reflex and for the hyperreflexic/incoordinated nature of the CP sphincter. In addition, the dysfunction of the extrapyramidal system has a specific role in the slowing of oropharyngeal swallowing and the accumulation of saliva in the mouth.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                medba
                Medicina (Buenos Aires)
                Medicina (B. Aires)
                Fundación Revista Medicina (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                0025-7680
                1669-9106
                April 2005
                : 65
                : 2
                : 117-120
                Affiliations
                orgnameCONICET orgdiv1Instituto de Neurociencias (INEUCI) orgdiv2Programa de Parkinson y Movimientos Anormales
                orgnameUniversidad de Buenos Aires orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín
                Article
                S0025-76802005000200005 S0025-7680(05)06500200005

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 14, Pages: 4
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