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      Immunostaining for Hu C/D and CD56 is useful for a definitive histopathological diagnosis of congenital and acquired isolated hypoganglionosis

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          The enteric nervous system in chagasic and idiopathic megacolon.

          Chagas disease frequently causes megacolon. We investigated the enteric nervous systems in patients with chagasic megacolon compared to idiopathic megacolon and controls. Surgical specimens were obtained from 12 patients with chagasic megacolon (1 woman, 11 men, age range 41 to 72 y) and 9 patients with idiopathic megacolon (3 women, 6 men, age range 39 to 68 y), undergoing surgery for intractable constipation. A control group of 10 patients (9 women, 1 man, age range 43 to 75 y) undergoing left hemicolectomy for nonobstructing colorectal cancer was also studied. Colonic sections were investigated by conventional and immunohistochemical methods, also taking into consideration the presence of lymphocytes. Compared to controls, the 2 megacolon groups showed a decrease of enteric neurons (not due to increased apoptosis) and of enteric glial cells (all more important in chagasic patients). The interstitial cells of Cajal subtypes were decreased but not absent in megacolons, although an increase of the intramuscular subtype was found, suggesting a possible compensative mechanism. An increased amount of fibrosis was found in the smooth muscle and the myenteric plexus of chagasic patients compared to the idiopathic megacolon and the control group. A mild lymphocytic infiltration of the enteric plexuses (more evident in Chagas disease) was also found in megacolons but not in controls. Patients with chagasic megacolon display important abnormalities of several components of the enteric nervous system. Similar alterations, although of lesser severity, may be found in patients with idiopathic megacolon.
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            Hirschsprung disease.

             Jacob Langer (2013)
            Hirschsprung disease is relatively common in children. Surgical techniques are available to remove the aganglionic bowel and reconstruct the intestinal tract. Despite many advances, these children may still be difficult to diagnose, and may have ongoing functional problems after surgical correction.
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              Quantification of neurons in the myenteric plexus: an evaluation of putative pan-neuronal markers.

              Accurate estimates of the total number of neurons located in the wall of the gut are essential for studies of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Though several stains and antibodies are used routinely as pan-neuronal markers, controversies of relative sensitivity and completeness have been difficult to resolve, at least in part because comparisons often must be made across experiments and laboratories. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of four putative pan-neuronal markers for the ENS, under comparable conditions. Neurons in the myenteric plexus of wholemounts taken from the small intestines of Fischer 344 rats were stained using Cuprolinic Blue, anti-HuC/D, anti-protein gene product 9.5, or FluoroGold injections followed by permanent labeling with an antibody to the FluoroGold molecule. All four markers had useful features, but both protein gene product 9.5 and FluoroGold were found to be problematic for obtaining reliable counts. As a result, only neurons labeled with either Cuprolinic Blue or anti-HuC/D were compared quantitatively. Based on counts from permanently labeled tissue, Cuprolinic Blue and HuC/D were similarly effective in labeling all neurons. Because the two protocols have different strengths and weaknesses, Cuprolinic Blue and HuC/D provide a complementary set of labels to study the total neuronal population of the ENS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Virchows Archiv
                Virchows Arch
                Springer Nature
                0945-6317
                1432-2307
                June 2017
                April 19 2017
                June 2017
                : 470
                : 6
                : 679-685
                Article
                10.1007/s00428-017-2128-9
                © 2017

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