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      Transversus abdominis plane block reduces remifentanil and propofol consumption, evaluated by closed-loop titration guided by bispectral index

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          The present prospective, randomized, double-blind study aimed to determine the impact of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on propofol and remifentanil consumption, when administered by closed-loop titration guided by processed electroencephalography, i.e., bispectral index (BIS) values. Following institutional review board approval, 60 patients were scheduled for laparoscopic colectomy under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive bilateral TAP block with 20 ml 0.375% ropivacaine (TAP group) or 20 ml 0.9% saline [control (CON) group]. General anesthesia was maintained with propofol and remifentanil administration using closed-loop titration guided by BIS values. The primary outcome was perioperative propofol and remifentanil consumption. The secondary outcomes were hypertensive or hypotensive events requiring treatment, recovery time in PACU and time to first rescue analgesia following surgery. A total of 58 patients participated in the present study. At similar depths of anesthesia, as measured by BIS during the maintenance phase (45–55), patients who received TAP blocks required less propofol (4.2±1.3 vs. 5.5±1.6 mg/kg/h; P<0.001) and remifentanil (0.16±0.05 vs. 0.21±0.05 µg/kg/min; P<0.001). Time to extubation was significantly shorter in the TAP group (9.8±3.2 min) than in the CON group (14.2±4.9 min) (P<0.05). The requirement to treat hemodynamic change was also significantly lower (P<0.05). Pain score at 2 h after surgery was also significantly reduced in the TAP group compared with the CON group (P<0.05), whereas the time to first rescue analgesia was delayed in patients who received TAP block (P<0.05). Postoperative nausea and vomiting occurred at comparable rates in each group (P>0.05). In conclusion, TAP block combined with general anesthesia reduced propofol and remifentanil consumption, shortened time to tracheal extubation and promoted hemodynamic stability in laparoscopic colectomy.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Abdominal field block: a new approach via the lumbar triangle.

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            Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I. Model development.

            Previous studies have reported conflicting results concerning the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil. Sixty-five healthy adults (38 men and 27 women) ages 20 to 85 y received remifentanil by constant-rate infusion of 1 to 8 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 4 to 20 min. Frequent arterial blood samples were drawn and assayed for remifentanil concentration. The electroencephalogram was used as a measure of drug effect. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling was performed using the software package NONMEM. The influence of volunteer covariates were analyzed using a generalized additive model. The performances of the simple (without covariates) and complex (with covariates) models were evaluated prospectively in an additional 15 healthy participants ages 41 to 84 y. The parameters for the simple three-compartment pharmacokinetic model were V1 = 4.98 l, V2 = 9.01 l, V3 = 6.54 l, Cl1 = 2.46 l/min, Cl2 = 1.69 l/min, and Cl3 = 0.065 l/min. Age and lean body mass were significant covariates. From the ages of 20 to 85 y, V1 and Cl1 decreased by approximately 25% and 33%, respectively. The parameters for the simple sigmoid Emax pharmacodynamic model were Ke0 = 0.516 min-1, E0 = 20 Hz, Emax = 5.62 Hz, EC50 = 11.2 ng/ml, and gamma = 2.51. Age was a significant covariate of EC50 and Ke0, with both decreasing by approximately 50% for the age range studied. The complex pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model performed better than did the simple model when applied prospectively. This study identified (1) an effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil; (2) an effect of lean body mass on the pharmacokinetic parameters; and (3) no influence of gender on any pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameter.
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              Pharmacokinetic model driven infusion of propofol in children.

              A computer controlled infusion device for propofol was used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia in 20 children undergoing minor surgical procedures. The device was programmed with an adult pharmacokinetic model for propofol. During and after anaesthesia, blood samples were taken for measurement of propofol concentrations and it was found that the values obtained were systematically overpredicted by the delivery system algorithm. New pharmacokinetic microconstants were derived from our data which reflected more accurately the elimination and distribution of propofol in a prospective study involving another 10 children.

                Author and article information

                Exp Ther Med
                Exp Ther Med
                Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
                D.A. Spandidos
                November 2018
                07 September 2018
                07 September 2018
                : 16
                : 5
                : 3897-3902
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
                [3 ]Yantai Center of Disease Control and Prevention, Yantai, Shandong 264003, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr Jiahai Ma, Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, 20 Yuhuangding East Road, Yantai, Shandong 264000, P.R. China, E-mail: mjh-214@ 123456163.com
                Dr Hong Liu, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health, 4150 V Street Suite 1200, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA, E-mail: hualiu@ 123456ucdavis.edu

                Contributed equally

                Copyright: © Ma et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.



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