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      Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome.

      The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers approximately 99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of approximately 1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human genome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead.
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        Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre

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          Genetic architecture of the polyketide synthases for methymycin and pikromycin series macrolides.

          The methymycin and pikromycin series of antibiotics are structurally related macrolides produced by several Streptomyces species, including Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439, which produces both 12-membered ring macrolides methymycin, neomethymycin, and 14-membered ring macrolides pikromycin and narbomycin. Cloning and sequencing of the biosynthetic gene clusters for these macrolides from three selected Streptomyces strains revealed a common genetic architecture of their polyketide synthases (PKSs). Unlike PKS clusters of other 14-membered ring macrolides such as erythromycin and oleandomycin, each of the pikromycin series producers harbors a six module PKS cluster, in which modules 5 and 6 are encoded on two separate proteins instead of one bimodular protein, as well as a thioesterase II gene immediately downstream of the main PKS gene. The results shed new light on the evolution of modular PKSs and provide further evidence on the regulation of methymycin and pikromycin production in S. venezuelae ATCC 15439.
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            Author notes
            Founding Editor-in-Chief of Genes, Department of Biology 3, University of York, PO Box 373, York YO10 5YW, UK; E-Mail: jpy1@ 123456york.ac.uk ; Tel.: +44 1904 328630; Fax: +44 1904 328505
            Journal
            Genes (Basel)
            Genes (Basel)
            11
            Genes
            MDPI
            2073-4425
            02 November 2009
            June 2010
            : 1
            : 1
            : 1-3
            3960866
            genes-01-00001
            10.3390/genes101
            genes101
            © 2009 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland

            This article is an Open Access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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